The most readily available drug throughout the world is alcohol (a term which throughout this article is used to mean ethyl alcohol). Despite its reputation for causing addiction, for leading to violence and disrupting family life it is a socially accepted drug in most countries of the world. The antisocial aspects relating to its use mean that various restrictions on its availability, sale and use apply in most places where it is produced and sold. Because of its effects on the behavior and actions of individuals especially in connection with motoring offences and other more serious crimes there is frequently a requirement to ascertain what the blood, breath, saliva or urine alcohol level of a person may be or may have been at a particular time. Because of this it is necessary to know how alcohol is absorbed, distributed and eliminated in the human body, which requires access to reliable sampling and analytical procedures.
The analysis of body fluids for the presence of alcohol and other drugs is of major importance both clinically and forensically. There is no doubt that in forensic science, breath and blood have become the two most important fluids for sampling in order to carry out analyses for alcohol (ethanol) particularly in relation to motoring and other offences involving transport, assaults and even murders. However, in theory it would be possible to sample any part of the body that possesses a water content and obtain a corresponding alcohol value to those for the other tissues. In practice, it is common to carry out analyses for alcohol contents on many parts of the body during post-mortem examination and a knowledge of the interrelationship between them is useful in establishing when alcohol may have been previously consumed and the part it may have played in the individual’s death.
Alcohol Absorption and Elimination
Once alcohol is taken into the body, either mixed in foods or in the more common way as in alcoholic drinks, the processes of metabolism commence. In the stomach the alcohol is subjected to three possible processes.
A small amount of the alcohol, less than 15%, is oxidized biochemically by the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) situated in the stomach lining. This is known as ‘first pass’ metabolism, but is very small compared with the more substantial metabolism of the majority of alcohol that passes into the bloodstream and that is eventually broken down by the same type of enzyme in the liver. First-pass metabolism is more significant with low levels of alcohol consumption, giving blood alcohol levels below 30mgdl_1, than it is with larger intakes.
A portion of the alcohol drunk, up to about 20% for people drinking on empty stomachs, is absorbed through the walls of the stomach and passes into the bloodstream. However, this process is fairly slow and the proportion of alcohol absorbed here depends on the length of time that the alcohol stays in the stomach. This will also depend on the bulkquantity of the drink, and means that alcohol from beers and lagers will usually take longer to enter the bloodstream than that from spirits and sherry. The rate of transfer into the bloodstream depends on the ability of the ethanol molecules to penetrate the stomach lining as well as the concentration of alcohol, the related osmotic pressure and the other components, such as carbohydrates, in the drink. Alcohol taken after or with food will be held in the stomach longer and its absorption into the bloodstream will be slower than if the same amount of alcohol had been drunkon an empty stomach. Fatty, bulky foods tend to slow down alcohol absorption considerably, and under these conditions total absorption of any alcohol drunk may take more than two hours.
The majority of alcohol is absorbed rapidly through the walls of the small intestine once it has passed through the pyloric sphincter from the stomach. This rapid absorption occurs because of the extensive surface area of the villi forming the walls of the small intestine. The fastest absorption of alcohol occurs with alcoholic drinks containing about 20% alcohol by volume and with spirits mixed with carbonated diluents as these accelerate the passage from the stomach to the small intestine. Neat spirits tend to irritate the stomach and absorption is slowed by the production of a protective mucus on the absorptive surfaces of the gastrointestinal tract.
Once the alcohol has passed from the gastrointestinal tract into the bloodstream it is progressively diluted by the blood and transported around the body, passing though the liver and the heart, rapidly reaching the brain and being circulated to the other body tissues. The relatively small ethanol molecules pass very easily through the various body and cell membranes and readily penetrate to all parts of the body. At any time there is a constant transfer of alcohol from the bloodstream into any surrounding tissue. The amount of alcohol in a particular part of the body will depend on the water content of that fluid or tissue. The brain has a very high water content and is well supplied with blood vessels, so any alcohol in the bloodstream is transported rapidly to that part of the body. About 90% of the alcohol available in the bloodstream when it reaches the head readily passes into the brain tissue, at all times establishing a dynamic equilibrium between the stationary fluid content of the brain and the mobile blood movement. This state of dynamic equilibrium is maintained throughout the whole body as the consumption of alcohol continues and also as the alcohol is progressively metabolized and the body alcohol level drops.
Within the brain alcohol acts as a depressant on the central nervous system undermining normal inhibitions and leading to a general deterioration of mental processes. This is due to inhibition of the action of neurotransmitters associated with brain receptors. It is unlikely that any single mechanism can explain the diversity of neurochemical actions that occur due to alcohol. It certainly has an anesthetizing effect probably due to its action on membrane processes. It is also believed that it binds to specific sites on y-aminobutryric acid (GABA) receptors enhancing their activities as evidenced in neurochemical and behavioral studies.
With pregnant women and nursing mothers a proportion of any alcohol drunkwill also pass into the fetus and the milk. This can lead to an increased likelihood of alcoholics giving birth to children with physical and mental defects.
As alcohol is continued to be drunk, a steadily increasing amount will pass into the bloodstream both from the stomach and the small intestine. Because of this the alcohol level throughout the body will not be uniform and will vary throughout the bloodstream. This state of affairs will continue while alcohol consumption continues, as there will be simultaneous elimination of alcohol from the processes of metabolism, perspiration and urination (including storage in the bladder) at the same time as alcohol is passing into the body. About 95% of the alcohol ingested is eventually metabolized in the body by enzymatic processes in the liver and about 5% is lost through breath, perspiration and urination.
The metabolic processes contributing to the elimination of alcohol from the body occur in three oxidation stages involving different enzymes in the liver. The first of these is conversion of alcohol (ethanol) into acetaldehyde (ethanal), which is then converted into acetic acid (ethanoic acid), and the final step is the oxidation of the acid to carbon dioxide and water. Although the metabolites acetaldehyde and acetic acid do not contribute to the level of intoxication of the drinker they can have unpleasant side effects. Acet-aldehyde is a poison and anything greater than minor concentrations in the bloodstream will give rise to a flushed and hot complexion, breathlessness, throbbing headaches, dizziness and nausea. Under normal conditions acetaldehyde does not accumulate in the body due to the further oxidation process catalyzed by the enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase, but this can be prevented by the use of some drugs. One of these, Antabuse (disulfiram), is specifically prescribed for patients who wish to be discouraged from drinking. The intention is that by taking the drug and continuing to drinkalcohol the patients will find the whole process so unpleasant because of the headaches and other disorders that they will prefer to give up the alcohol.
It should also be emphasized that the presence of small levels of acetaldehyde and acetic acid in the bloodstream do not interfere with the analytical values for the blood, saliva or urine alcohol levels. The gas chromatographic method used for quantitative analyses involves the total separation of the alcohol from the other substances before it is individually quantified.
Once alcohol ceases to be absorbed into the bloodstream then the processes of elimination take over completely and distribution of the alcohol in the body enters into the state of ‘dynamic equilibrium’. At this stage the alcohol contents of the various tissues and fluids will bear a constant ratio to each other and this will be maintained whilst alcohol is progressively eliminated from the body, so long as additional alcohol is not drunk. Circulation of the blood maintains the ratios, effectively redistributing any alcohol around the body.
A moderate to large amount of concentrated alcohol drunkin a short period of time on an empty stomach will lead to a rapid increase in the blood alcohol level to a peakvalue and an uneven distribution of alcohol throughout the body. This may also lead to the creation of an ‘overshoot peak’ for a brief period (Fig. 1) which is above the normal shape of the theoretical absorption/elimination curve.
However, this is most commonly encountered under laboratory conditions where subjects are required to reach measurable body alcohol levels in a short space of time by rapidly drinking fairly large volumes of spirits. But laboratory conditions do not always reflect real life where it is more common for several drinks to be consumed over an extended period of time. This means that in practice the alcohol in the body may not be in a state of dynamic equilibrium during the whole of the drinking session for several hours, and again will only reach this situation a short time after all alcohol drunkhas passed into the bloodstream. In these cases the alcohol absorption/elimination curve will take the form of an extended arc with a central plateau level extending for an hour or more.
Figure 1 Alcohol absorption/elimination curve showing overshoot peak.
The curve may even have a series of minor peaks on the absorption side if there have been intervals of time between consecutive alcoholic drinks (Fig. 2). This will also occur if a person has been drinking moderately during lunchtime and still has alcohol in his or her body when starting to drinkalcohol again in the evening – the process is known as ‘topping-up’.
The sampling of body fluids and tissues during the absorption phase will lead to results being obtained which do not correspond with normal distribution ratios. For instance venous blood alcohol levels tend to be lower than the corresponding arterial blood levels during this phase. But when dynamic equilibrium has been attained it is, in theory, possible to sample any part of the body and from the measurement of the alcohol content calculate the corresponding alcohol content of some other fluid or tissue. It is this feature that enables comparable legal limits for drink-driving to be used for blood, urine and breath. However, this does not mean that medical, scientific and legal arguments do not continue about the absolute values for these interconversion ratios. As a result countries do differ in the values applied and this generally affects the comparability between the legislated blood alcohol and breath alcohol values. A typical set of values for the relative distribution of alcohol in the body is given in Table 1. From this it can be seen that because of its solids content whole blood has a lower alcohol content than a comparable volume of blood plasma or serum.
Figure 2 Alcohol absorption/elimination curve showing top-up peaks. Arrows indicate times at which alcoholic drinks were taken.
Table 1 Distribution ratios for ethanol between whole blood and other body fluids and tissues
|Cisternal spinal fluid||1.10|
|Plasma or serum||1.15|
*This breath alcohol figure is based upon the relationship that one volume of blood contains the same amount of ethanol as do 2300 volumes of alveolar breath (the normal range of values is between 2000 and 3000 volumes).
For forensic purposes the most popular samples for alcohol analysis are undoubtedly blood and breath which are dealt with in detail elsewhere but saliva and urine are both used in different parts of the world and are of value in particular circumstances, especially as, unlike blood, they can be considered to be noninva-sive. The comparability of the absorption/elimination curves for the different body fluids is shown in Fig. 3.
Rates of Alcohol Elimination
The amount of alcohol that is drunkeven in a single measure of whisky or sherry is more than enough to overload the capacity of the enzymes in the liver. In this respect alcohol differs from other drugs, even those which are abused, in that the alcohol in alcoholic drinks is measured in grams whereas the active quantities in drugs, prescribed or illegal, are in milligrams, a ratio of 1000:1. Because there is a large excess of alcohol being pumped around the body by the heart the enzymes can only eliminate it at a constant rate. This is why the main part of the alcohol elimination curve is, essentially, a straight line. In chemical terms it follows a process of zero order kinetics. It is only at very low body alcohol levels, below about 10 mg dl_1, that the elimination follows the same type of pattern as normal drug elimination with an exponential curve typical of first order kinetics.
In practice what this means is that for most of the alcohol elimination phase it is possible to predict what the alcohol level of a particular body fluid will be at a specific time if the rate of alcohol elimination has been established for part of the elimination phase of the curve. It is normally accepted that the average rate of alcohol elimination corresponds to a reduction of 15 mg dl ~1 of blood (or 20 mg dl ~1 of urine) every hour. The equivalent figure for breath is 6.5 ugdl-1 of breath. This corresponds approximately to the amount of alcohol in a single drink, i.e. a single measure of spirits, a small glass of wine or about 250 ml of normal strength beer or lager. But this is an average for all people including occasional drinkers. For people who regularly drinkalcohol the average figure is nearer 18mgdl_1 for blood (24mgdl_1 for urine). But the potential range is very wide extending from low values of about 9mgdl_1 to very high elimination rates sometimes in excess of 25mgdl_1 with some problem drinkers and alcoholics.
Figure 3: Comparability of Alcohol levels between body fluids.
Alcohol in Saliva
At present this is the least used of the readily available body fluids. Its main limitation being that it cannot be provided in any substantial volume. With modern gas chromatographic analysis equipment the small volume constitutes no problem for quantitative evidential analysis. But splitting the sample between containers and ensuring that loss of alcohol does not readily occur during storage does mean that there are potential sources of error. For these reasons the main studies on saliva have been as a potential noninvasive screening sample. It is now possible to take a swab from the mouth using a cotton wool padded stick which is then inserted into a recess in a plastic plate containing ADH, plus other reagents, to produce a color reaction which is used to establish the corresponding blood alcohol level. However, few legislators appear to be prepared to include saliva in the list of body fluids that can be sampled for forensic purposes, although it does have equal potential as a readily available sample for the screening of drugs.
Alcohol in Urine
In contrast with saliva, urine is one of the fluids that has been approved for sampling purposes almost as much as blood, probably because of its ease of collection and the volume that is likely to be available. However, for quantitative alcohol analyses urine sampling has to be carefully carried out and its relationship with the corresponding blood alcohol level considered with caution.
Technically speaking urine is a ‘dead liquid’ when it is provided. Before that stage when it is stored in the bladder it is not in dynamic equilibrium with the other body fluids except at the time that it is actually discharged from the kidney into the ureter to travel to the bladder. This means that the bladder is receiving a constantly changing concentration of alcohol depending on whether alcohol absorption is still continuing, at the same time as alcohol metabolism, or if absorption has ceased and only elimination is taking place. The situation can be even more confusing if the urine sample is collected from a bladder which has been filled during part of both the absorption and elimination alcohol phases. So the alcohol concentration in the bladder can be increasing or decreasing and this will also depend on when the bladder was last emptied.
In many respects urine is unreliable as a medium for quantitative analyses of alcohol especially as the peak urine alcohol level occurs about 30 minutes after the peakblood alcohol level. Because of these problems,where urine is accepted as a forensic sample for quantitative analysis, it is necessary to have subjects empty their bladders completely before waiting for 30-60 minutes before another sample for analysis is provided. However, even that later sample will be one which has varied in composition during the interval of time which has elapsed before being supplied.
Alcohol Concentrations and Calculations
Because human beings differ widely in height, weight, sex, body fat content and health, as well as in many other respects, the identical amount of alcohol drunk by different people will produce different body alcohol levels, irrespective of which fluid is sampled. In fact the same amount of alcohol may be contained in different volumes of a range of alcoholic drinks. So one person might drink15 g of alcohol contained in about half a litre of lager whereas another person will drink the same amount in roughly a double measure (50 ml) of gin. In the first case, because of the bulk of the liquid, it will take longer for the alcohol to be absorbed into the bloodstream than it would in the case of the alcohol from the gin where it is contained in a much smaller volume. Although this again will depend on the speed of drinking. The number of variables is therefore high and accounts to some extent for people drinking the same amount of alcohol producing different blood, breath and urine alcohol levels and exhibiting different degrees of intoxication.
It has been well established that, in general, compared with men, women only require two-thirds of the amount of alcohol to produce the same body alcohol levels. This is because the average woman’s body contains a higher proportion of body fat and a lower proportion of water than does the average man’s body. So there is less water in the female body to dilute the alcohol.
Various attempts have been made over the years to relate alcohol levels to the amount that has been drunk. The pioneer work in this field was carried out in the 1930s by E. M. P. Widmark. His studies led to the development of the following equation:
where c is the anticipated blood alcohol concentration (mgdl-1), but can be the corresponding breath, saliva or urine alcohol level by use of the appropriate conversion factor; g is the number of grams of alcohol consumed; w is the person’s bodyweight in kilograms; r is the Widmark factor, for men this is 0.68 and for women 0.55.
The difference between the Widmark factors for the two sexes takes into consideration the relative amounts of body fat. However, these are only average values and in recent years various attempts have been made to produce individual factors for each person, where necessary, which more completely take into consideration the person’s height, weight and age. These necessitate calculating the individual’s amount of body water after determining the proportion of body fat. For obese people the modified factor can be 10-20% lower than the Widmarkfactor.
The above equation only provides a theoretical value for the possible alcohol level produced from alcohol consumption, it does not take into consideration alcohol that might have been lost due to metabolism. But this is another aspect that has to be considered if attempts are to be made to determine whether or not a person’s claimed alcohol consumption corresponds to the values obtained on analysis. For instance, using the basic equation given above, a man weighing 75 kg drinking 50 g of alcohol in three half litres of lager will produce a theoretical blood alcohol level of 98mgdl-1. The same amount of alcohol drunkby a 55 kg woman will produce a corresponding blood alcohol level of 165mgdl-1.
However, these figures will bear no relationship to the actual blood alcohol levels, say, four hours later and some assumption has to be made with respect to the amount of alcohol eliminated. If in both cases it is assumed that there is an average rate of loss corresponding to a reduction of 15 mg dl-1 of blood every hour in the blood alcohol level then, in its simplest form, this would mean that the man could expect to have a blood alcohol level of 38mgdl-1 after that period of time and the woman would expect to be at 105 mgdl-1.
This places a greater responsibility on women to take even more care about how much alcohol they drink than it does on men. Although there is no safe body alcohol level for either sex when it comes to driving motor vehicles or handling dangerous machinery. Alcohol at any level in the body can lead to impairment of abilities and judgment.
Calculations on blood, breath and urine alcohol levels are used extensively in court defenses where the defendants claim that they drank alcohol after they had been driving and were below the legal limit at the time of the alleged offence. Such calculations have to be considered with considerable caution as the large number of variables, including the quality of the evidence provided, means that these can only be considered to be a guide and indication at the best, although in practice with reliable data the variables do tend to cancel each other out. However, even apparently satisfactory values should not be accepted in the absence of additional data and evidence.
Recovering from Alcohol
Unfortunately there are very few substances that will genuinely assist in increasing the metabolic rate or speeding the elimination on alcohol in any way. Although the caffeine in large quantities of strong coffee or tea may actually make an intoxicated person feel a little better due to the stimulating effect of the caffeine it does nothing to reduce the actual body alcohol level or to improve that person’s ability to drive a motor vehicle or to be responsible for their actions. The tea or coffee may, however, serve to dilute any alcohol still remaining in the stomach and hence slow down the rate of the alcohol absorption and reduce the peak body alcohol level attained.
However, in cases in which it is essential to reduce the alcohol level, as with casualties in hospital who may be suffering from head injuries, it is usual to drip feed a concentrated solution of fructose into the veins. This has the effect of accelerating alcohol elimination and enables hospital staff to establish at an early stage if the person’s actions and demeanor are due to intoxication or the brain injury. However, the quantities of fructose used for this purpose would be enough to make a person sick if taken orally. This concept has led to the marketing of so called ‘soberers’ which are claimed to assist drinkers to recover from their excesses. These are usually tablets consisting of mixtures of either fructose and vitamin C or of kaolin and charcoal, but there is no indication that in this form or these small quantities they have any effect either on alcohol absorption or elimination. Only time and the body’s natural processes will clear the alcohol from the system.
Alcohol is the most studied of all the drugs because of its ubiquity and its propensity for being abused. Other drugs tend to target particular sites in the body, but its solubility and small molecular size readily enable alcohol to reach all parts of the body. Forensic scientists continue to investigate the properties of alcohol in order to obtain an even clearer understanding of its pharmacology.
These are my most helpful tips to stop body odor. These will prevent and/or eliminated bad odor (or odour for my European brethren 🙂 ) in both men & women.
A little about me:
My name is Vinace & I come from the Philipines. I have I suffered from bromhidrosis, or excessive body odor, for a while, and believe me, it is the WORST thing you may ever experience and some said it is forever if you have it….What??
Not that I’ve found this website & know that other people are dealing with the same thing, it gave me some hope.
I totally disagree that this has to last forever. It all depends on your lifestyle on how to manage it…
I know that my words are not just as powerful as those who write well but but believe me guys! This helps you a lot to get rid of this. Ok
Tips to stop body odor #1 – Knowledge
Have knowledge about body odor and all things that about it…
When you wake up in the morning, think about something that will make you happy. Ok
When you think of happy memories your body temperature regulate to cool temperature. If you think something bad you are getting nervous; your body shakes and your temperature becomes high that will lead to excessive sweating.
For women & men, sweating is the normal body response to our daily activity.
There are two types of sweat glands:
1. Eccrine glands
2. Apocrine glands
Eccrines glands are sweats glands that found around the body. they produce sweat usually clear secretion composed of:
-Water plus some salt (Na = sodium chloride)
-Metabolic waste such as ammonia, urea, uric acid
-Lactic acid = chemical produces during heavy muscle activities.
This is also called as body’s heat-regulator
which supplied with nerve endings that cause them to secrete sweat when external temperature or body temperature is high so when sweat evaporates off the skin surface, it carries large amount of body heat with it. So in hot day drink plenty of water to prevent dehydration.
Apocrine glands are sweat gland that usually found in axillary (underarm), and genital areas of the body. This gland is usually larger than Eccrine gland and their ducts empty into hair follicle. Women have more of these than men. The sweat is composed of:
-and the sweat composition of eccrine glands.
This is usually or may have milky or yellowish color. The secretion of apocrine gland is ODORLESS, but when the bacteria in the surface of the skin use the proteins and fats as source of nutrients for their growth, it develops a musky unpleasant odor.
Apocrine glands begin to function in puberty age in both sexes but usually in males because of the influence of androgens (a male sex hormone) although both sexes have this hormone in male the level of androgen is high compared to female is low.
Tip #2 – Smell youself
Smell yourself from underarm to you genitals.
Because the bacteria usually accumulates in this part that causes body odor.
Tip #3 Take a bath
if you smells something unpleasant….
take a bath immediately to get rid of unpleasant odor….
When you take a bath get a clean towel or scrubber to scrub you body especially in your underarm and your groin and genitals…. wash this part with soap..
in buying soaps, buy a soap that has ingredients that stops and kill the bacteria usually labeled as skin germ protection soaps……
do not buy soap that has a high level of perfume and alcohol. do not use soups that has a moisturizing effect. because if you use this in your underarm the skin will not be dry.
Tips to stop body odor #4 – Deodorants
Use deodorants not only antiperspirant but also antibacterial…..
Do not use dedorants that are high in perfume because as you notice you smells like deodorant and meanwhile became foul.
Do not use deodorant that has a high level of alcohol if you dont want to have black underarm.. because to much dryness can cause skin cell to die and meanwhile become a bacteria that promotes body odor..
I know you became confuse let me elaborate…
Deodorants that has a antibacterial and antiperspirant effect will keep and stops the sweating activity in the underarm for 24 or 48 hours and the feeling is fresh because no bacteria is presence and also the food of the bacteria…
While deodorant with high level of perfume and alcohol can cause you underarm to irritate that will lead to allergic reactions.. and causes you underarm to have cuts because of to much dryness.. the cuts will cause foul smell because it is an open wound and the foul smell fuse to perfume unwanted pleasant occurs….. get it ok!!!!!
Tip #5 – Washing Clothes
Wash your clothes immediately!!!!
If you did not wash your clothes immediately the bacterial activity continues in your shirt and multiply continuosly…..especially to your wet in the sweat shirt…..
Technique for washing your shirt:
1. wash first
2. use a antibacterial washing powder…
3. soaked you clothes for 30 min to 1 hour
4. after 30 min to 1 hour.. wash your clothes with your hands by rubbing it vigorously.. or use a net to scrub it especially in the underarm area and you underwear……
5. then soak again in 30 min to 1 hour..
6. after 30 min to 1 hour wash again 3x
7. let it dry in under the sun..
8. iron you clothes, take not especially in the underarm area… if you iron it the bacteria will die in heat.. but after ironing and you smell unpleasant odor you did not wash your clothes neatly…
do not use fabric conditioner because the underarm natural odor will fuse and unpleasant odor occurred…
If your using washing machine always scrub the underarm area of you shirt….
Do not wash your clothes if the sun is not their especially in rainy days because the insect will nest in wet area of you clothes especially mosquitos, and the insect is dirty and full of bacteria that will transfer to your clothes.
Tips to stop body odor #6 – Diet
Do not eat to much fatty foods, meats, oily foods……
Remember this..Oils, fats after eating will be eliminates in the body in the process of sweating and urinating so beware or minimizing eating it
Do not eat preservative can goods. Instead eat quaker oats to eliminate fats through bowel movement.
Eat green leafy vegetables, fruits and drink plenty of water to prevent dehydration and to neutralize liquid in the body…..
Tip #7 – Do not borrow others clothes
Do not borrow others clothes because body oder is transferable… if they have body and you borrow their clothes and wore it their is a high possibility that you can have body odor…and do not allow anybody to borrow your clothes also…
Tip #8 – Change
Always change you clothes if you sweat excessively….to prevent bacterial action to spread in your body through wet shirt..
and always wear dry clothes….
Tip #9 Again Take a bath.
Again after daily activities before going to sleep take bath to stop the spreading of bacteria in you bed cloth…. and use new clothes and apply deodorant in your underarm..
Prevention Tip #10 – Sleep early
If you sleep early your body cells and tissues will repair when you sleep.. the early you sleep at night the longer you body will repair it self inside and outside…
hope this tips will help you to your daily activities struggling and eliminate body odor and prevent it from coming back…
My name is VinAce…
If you have questions or Comments or Problem Regarding this tips to stop body odor issue…You can send me a message in me email add:
Just put the subject..
E-mail: vinace_ace_123 at yahoo.com
Thank You very Much….
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Fluid retention is the accumulation of water in the tissues which is a result of imbalance in the liquid levels in the body. Our body is a complex system of hormones that constantly tweak the levels of liquids in order to keep them stable. This is why drinking more than the recommended amount of water doesn’t cause any problems – the excess is eliminated by the kidneys in the form of urine or sweat. In order to prevent fluid retention, you should avoid doing the following 6 things that are probably causing it:
Consuming too much sodium
Sodium is present in almost any food we eat, but by consuming too much of it and not drinking enough water it may result in fluid retention.
Processed foods contain a lot of sugar and sodium, two substances that are considered as the main causes of edema.
Not drinking plenty of water during the day will result in dehydration. Dehydration will make the body retain water in order to survive which can lead to swelling in the tissues.
Vitamin B6 deficiency
Lack of vitamin B6 in the body may cause fluid retention, so make sure to optimize its levels. The best sources of vitamin B6 are tuna, sunflower seeds, potatoes, pistachios, bananas or chicken.
Magnesium is one of the most important minerals for our health. It plays a part in many functions, which is why we should take at least 200 mg. a day. Taking the optimal amount of magnesium will also prevent fluid retention. Magnesium can be found in foods such as nuts, dried fruits, avocado, whole grains and spinach.
Lack of potassium in the body may lead to improper functioning organs and fluid imbalance and retention as the mineral regulates the water balance in the body.
HERE ARE SOME TIPS THAT WILL HELP YOU PREVENT FLUID RETENTION:
Exercising is key against fluid retention in the body. It will activate the circulation in your legs by compressing the muscles in the veins and allowing excess fluid to be eliminate through urine and sweat.
Elevating the legs when resting can also help. This will reduce the swelling in the ankles – put your ankles above the knees at a sharp angle to accelerate the movement of fluids.
In order to prevent fluid retention in the body, you should also consume more fruit and vegetables. They contain flavonoids which will be of great help in removing excess fluids from the body.
Avoid wearing tight clothing as it can impair your circulation and decrease your salt intake as well. Try not to shower with hot water in order to prevent dehydration and allow the body to prevent accumulation of fluids.
Fluid retention is the accumulation of water in the tissues which is a result of imbalance in the liquid levels in the body. Our body is a complex system of hormones that constantly tweak the levels of liquids in order to keep them stable. This is why drinking more…
[email protected] and Home Remedies
Any healthy inactive adult residing in a temperate climate should maintain an intake of 1.5 liter of water per day. The consumption of water enables the body to remain hydrated and balance water losses. Water is a major constituent of a human body and vital organs. Water provides many vital functions in our body, namely in cell life, chemical and metabolic reactions, transport of nutrients, body temperature regulation and elimination of waste.
Water is our body’s most essential and important nutrient. It is involved in every bodily function and constitute for 70-75% of human total body weight. The lack of water in the body in sufficient amount can make it stop working properly. It helps maintain body temperature, metabolize body fat, lubricates organs, aids in digestion, transports nutrients and flushes toxins away from your body. Water is a carrier and distributor of essential nutrients to cells, such as minerals, glucose and vitamins. It removes waste products such as toxins that the organs’ cell castoff and help body eliminate it through urines and fasces. It plays a vital part in the biochemical breakdown of our food. Water has a large heat capacity which enables it to restrict changes in body temperature in a warm or cold environment. Water allows the body to emit excess heat when the surrounding temperature is higher than body temperature as the body sweats and the evaporated water leaves the body cooler. Water is also an effective lubricant around the joints and act as shock absorber for eyes, brain, spinal cord and the fetus through amniotic fluid.
It is highly recommended that to drink 64 ounces of water per day at minimum. In case of exercising or being overweight, the water consumption should be more. The blood is approximately 90% water and, as aforementioned, is responsible for transporting nutrients and energy to muscles as well as removing waste from tissues.
If human body does not receive sufficient water, the body reacts by retrieving it from other places in our body including blood. The lack of water causes the capillaries to close which makes the blood thicker, hence harder to pump through the system and more prone to clotting. It can pose grave repercussions in form of hypertension, high cholesterol and heart disease. Research has also linked the lack of water to headaches, arthritis and heartburn.
Furthermore, water contributes increase of body fat as it helps with energy storage along with glycogen. In case of lack of sufficient water content, excess amounts of glucose remains in the bloodstream until it reaches the liver. The extra glucose is then converted and stored as fat. Human body retrieves water from inside cells into compensates for dehydration, including fat cells. Less water content in the fat cells means less mobilization of fat for energy.
Among the liver’s primary function is the metabolizing of stored fat into energy. The kidneys are responsible for filtering toxins, ingested water, wastes and salts from the bloodstream. In case of dehydration, the kidneys cannot perform properly and efficiently and the liver has to work overtime to compensate. As a consequence, it metabolizes less fat. Drinking plenty of water, along with many health implication, is really helpful in decreasing the amount of fat. In addition, water is also an effective natural appetite suppressant. Dieters have been prescribed the drinking of water abundantly as a weight loss strategy. Intake of water over caloric beverages and eating water rich foods are healthier, more filling and aids in weight loss.
Water is part of our immune system, which aids in fighting off diseases, bacteria and viruses. It helps maintain the balance of body fluids which in turn help in digestion, circulation, absorption, creation of saliva, etc.
Water help muscles keep energized as cell that don’t maintain a balance of fluids and electrolytes shrivel suffer from muscle fatigue. In addition, muscle cells with inadequate fluids don’t perform well and performance is compromised. It is important that enough water is consumed, especially when exercising. Water helps keep the skin looking good and fresh. Skin contains water and functions as a protective barrier to prevent excess fluid loss.
There are three methods for the human body to receive water. We receive it from the foods we consume, the fluids we drink and as a byproduct of metabolism. It is recommended to drink pure water instead of soda, tea or coffee, as these products increases the need for fluids due to their caffeine content, which is a diuretic. Diuretics forces out stored water, as well as certain essential nutrients.
Water is a vital nutrient for human body and a necessity for human life. Without water, a human being cannot survive for more than a few days at most. Body requires water to complete many important jobs. Water intake can be increased by having a beverage with every snack and meal, choosing beverages that are enjoyable, eating more fruits and vegetables, keeping a bottle of water handy and choosing a beverage that meet one’s individual needs. In short, water is the most important source of life on the green planet.
Nestle Waters, 2014, 5 Water Functions in Human Body, Retrieved from: /> Marjie Gilliam, 2014, Water: The Body’s Most Important Nutrient, Retrieved from: /> Kathleen M. Zelman, 2014, 6 Reasons to Drink Water, Retrieved from:
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