Nzh diets

Dieting is the practice of eating food in a regulated and supervised fashion to decrease, maintain, or increase body weight. In other words, it is conscious control or restriction of the diet. A restricted diet is often used by those who are overweight or obese, sometimes in combination with physical exercise, to reduce body weight. Some people follow a diet to gain weight (usually in the form of muscle). Diets can also be used to maintain a stable body weight and improve health. In particular, diets can be designed to prevent or treat diabetes.

Diets to promote weight loss can be categorized as: low-fat, low-carbohydrate, low-calorie, very low calorie and more recently flexible dieting. A meta-analysis of six randomized controlled trials found no difference between low-calorie, low-carbohydrate, and low-fat diets, with a 2–4 kilogram weight loss over 12–18 months in all studies. At two years, all calorie-reduced diet types cause equal weight loss irrespective of the macronutrients emphasized. In general, the most effective diet is any which reduces calorie consumption.

A study published in American Psychologist found that short-term dieting involving “severe restriction of calorie intake” does not lead to “sustained improvements in weight and health for the majority of individuals”. Other studies have found that the average individual maintains some weight loss after dieting. Weight loss by dieting, while of benefit to those classified as unhealthy, may slightly increase the mortality rate for individuals who are otherwise healthy.

The first popular diet was “Banting”, named after William Banting. In his 1863 pamphlet, Letter on Corpulence, Addressed to the Public, he outlined the details of a particular low-carbohydrate, low-calorie diet that had led to his own dramatic weight loss.

History

William Banting

, popularized one of the first weight loss diets in the 19th century.

One of the first dietitians was the English doctor George Cheyne. He himself was tremendously overweight and would constantly eat large quantities of rich food and drink. He began a meatless diet, taking only milk and vegetables, and soon regained his health. He began publicly recommending his diet for everyone suffering from obesity. In 1724, he wrote An Essay of Health and Long Life, in which he advises exercise and fresh air and avoiding luxury foods.

The Scottish military surgeon, John Rollo, published Notes of a Diabetic Case in 1797. It described the benefits of a meat diet for those suffering from diabetes, basing this recommendation on Matthew Dobson’s discovery of glycosuria in diabetes mellitus. By means of Dobson’s testing procedure (for glucose in the urine) Rollo worked out a diet that had success for what is now called type 2 diabetes.

The first popular diet was “Banting”, named after the English undertaker William Banting. In 1863, he wrote a booklet called Letter on Corpulence, Addressed to the Public, which contained the particular plan for the diet he had successfully followed. His own diet was four meals per day, consisting of meat, greens, fruits, and dry wine. The emphasis was on avoiding sugar, sweet foods, starch, beer, milk and butter. Banting’s pamphlet was popular for years to come, and would be used as a model for modern diets. The pamphlet’s popularity was such that the question “Do you bant?” referred to his method, and eventually to dieting in general. His booklet remains in print as of 2007.

The first weight-loss book to promote calorie counting, and the first weight-loss book to become a bestseller, was the 1918 Diet and Health: With Key to the Calories by American physician and columnist Lulu Hunt Peters.

Types

Low-fat

Low-fat diets involve the reduction of the percentage of fat in one’s diet. Calorie consumption is reduced because less fat is consumed. Diets of this type include NCEP Step I and II. A meta-analysis of 16 trials of 2–12 months’ duration found that low-fat diets (without intentional restriction of caloric intake) resulted in average weight loss of 3.2 kg (7.1 lb) over habitual eating.

Low-carbohydrate

Low-carbohydrate diets such as Atkins and Protein Power are relatively high in protein and fats. Low-carbohydrate diets are sometimes ketogenic (i.e., they restrict carbohydrate intake sufficiently to cause ketosis).

Low-calorie

Low-calorie diets usually produce an energy deficit of 500–1,000 calories per day, which can result in a 0.5 to 1 kilogram (1.1 to 2.2 pounds) weight loss per week. One of the most commonly used low-calorie diets is Weight Watchers. The National Institutes of Health reviewed 34 randomized controlled trials to determine the effectiveness of low-calorie diets. They found that these diets lowered total body mass by 8% in the short term, over 3–12 months. Women doing low-calorie diets should have at least 1,200 calories per day. Men should have at least 1,800 calories per day.

Very low-calorie

Very low calorie diets provide 200–800 calories per day, maintaining protein intake but limiting calories from both fat and carbohydrates. They subject the body to starvation and produce an average loss of 1.5–2.5 kg (3.3–5.5 lb) per week. “2-4-6-8”, a popular diet of this variety, follows a four-day cycle in which only 200 calories are consumed the first day, 400 the second day, 600 the third day, 800 the fourth day, and then totally fasting, after which the cycle repeats. These diets are not recommended for general use as they are associated with adverse side effects such as loss of lean muscle mass, increased risks of gout, and electrolyte imbalances. People attempting these diets must be monitored closely by a physician to prevent complications.

Detox

Detox diets claim to eliminate “toxins” from the human body rather than claiming to cause weight loss. Many of these use herbs or celery and other juicy low-calorie vegetables.

Religious

Religious prescription may be a factor in motivating people to adopt a specific restrictive diet. For example, the Biblical Book of Daniel (1:2-20, and 10:2-3) refers to a 10- or 21-day avoidance of foods (Daniel Fast) declared unclean by God in the laws of Moses. In modern versions of the Daniel Fast, food choices may be limited to whole grains, fruits, vegetables, pulses, nuts, seeds and oil. The Daniel Fast resembles the vegan diet in that it excludes foods of animal origin. The passages strongly suggest that the Daniel Fast will promote good health and mental performance.

Fasting is practiced in various religions. Examples include Lent in Christianity; Yom Kippur, Tisha B’av, Fast of Esther, Tzom Gedalia, the Seventeenth of Tamuz, and the Tenth of Tevet in Judaism.Muslims refrain from eating during the hours of daytime for one entire month, Ramadan, every year.

Details of fasting practices differ. Eastern Orthodox Christians fast during specified fasting seasons of the year, which include not only the better-known Great Lent, but also fasts on every Wednesday and Friday (except on special holidays), together with extended fasting periods before Christmas (the Nativity Fast), after Easter (the Apostles Fast) and in early August (the Dormition Fast). Members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) generally fast for 24 hours on the first Sunday of each month. Like Muslims, they refrain from all drinking and eating unless they are children or are physically unable to fast. Fasting is also a feature of ascetic traditions in religions such as Hinduism and Buddhism. Mahayana traditions that follow the Brahma’s Net Sutra may recommend that the laity fast “during the six days of fasting each month and the three months of fasting each year” . Members of the Baha’i Faith observe a Nineteen Day Fast from sunrise to sunset during March each year.

Nutrition

Weight loss diets that manipulate the proportion of macronutrients (low-fat, low-carbohydrate, etc.) have been shown to be more effective than diets that maintain a typical mix of foods with smaller portions and perhaps some substitutions (e.g. low-fat milk, or less salad dressing). Extreme diets may, in some cases, lead to malnutrition.

Nutritionists also agree on the importance of avoiding fats, especially saturated fats, to reduce weight and to be healthier. They also agree on the importance of reducing salt intake because foods including snacks, biscuits, and bread already contain ocean-salt, contributing to an excess of salt daily intake.

MyPyramid Food Guidance System is the result of extensive research performed by the United States Department of Agriculture to revise the original Food Guide Pyramid. It offers a wide array of personalized options to help individuals make healthy food choices. It also provides advice on physical activity.

One of the most important things to take into consideration when either trying to lose or put on weight is output versus input. It is important to know the amount of energy your body is using every day, so that your intake fits the needs of one’s personal weight goal. Someone wanting to lose weight would want a smaller energy intake than what they put out. There is increasing research-based evidence that low-fat vegetarian diets consistently lead to healthy weight loss and management, a decrease in diabetic symptoms as well as improved cardiac health.

How the body eliminates fat

When the body is expending more energy than it is consuming (e.g. when exercising), the body’s cells rely on internally stored energy sources, such as complex carbohydrates and fats, for energy. The first source to which the body turns is glycogen (by glycogenolysis). Glycogen is a complex carbohydrate, 65% of which is stored in skeletal muscles and the remainder in the liver (totaling about 2,000 kcal in the whole body). It is created from the excess of ingested macronutrients, mainly carbohydrates. When glycogen is nearly depleted, the body begins lipolysis, the mobilization and catabolism of fat stores for energy. In this process, fats, obtained from adipose tissue, or fat cells, are broken down into glycerol and fatty acids, which can be used to generate energy. The primary by-products of metabolism are carbon dioxide and water; carbon dioxide is expelled through the respiratory system.

Weight loss groups

Some weight loss groups aim to make money, others work as charities. The former include Weight Watchers and Peertrainer. The latter include Overeaters Anonymous and groups run by local organizations.

These organizations’ customs and practices differ widely. Some groups are modelled on twelve-step programs, while others are quite informal. Some groups advocate certain prepared foods or special menus, while others train dieters to make healthy choices from restaurant menus and while grocery-shopping and cooking.

Food diary

A 2008 study published in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine showed that dieters who kept a daily food diary (or diet journal), lost twice as much weight as those who did not keep a food log, suggesting that if you record your eating, you wouldn’t eat as many calories.

Possible weight loss effects of drinking water prior to meals

A 2009 review found that existing limited evidence suggested that encouraging water consumption and substituting energy-free beverages for energy-containing beverages (i.e., reducing caloric intake) may facilitate weight management. A 2009 article found that drinking 500 ml of water prior to meals for a 12-week period resulted in increased long-term weight reduction. (References given in main article.)

Fasting

Lengthy fasting can be dangerous due to the risk of malnutrition and should be carried out only under medical supervision. During prolonged fasting or very low calorie diets the reduction of blood glucose, the preferred energy source of the brain, causes the body to deplete its glycogen stores. Once glycogen is depleted the body begins to fuel the brain using ketones, while also metabolizing body protein (including but not limited to skeletal muscle) to be used to synthesize sugars for use as energy by the rest of the body. Most experts believe that a prolonged fast can lead to muscle wasting, although some dispute this. The use of short-term fasting, or various forms of intermittent fasting have been used as a form of dieting to circumvent this issue.

Side effects

While there are studies that show the health and medical benefits of weight loss, a study in 2005 of around 3000 Finns over an 18-year period showed that weight loss from dieting can result in increased mortality, while those who maintained their weight fared the best. Similar conclusion is drawn by other studies, and although other studies suggest that intentional weight loss has a small benefit for individuals classified as unhealthy, it is associated with slightly increased mortality for healthy individuals and the slightly overweight but not obese. This may reflect the loss of subcutaneous fat and beneficial mass from organs and muscle in addition to visceral fat when there is a sudden and dramatic weight loss.

Low carbohydrate versus low fat

Many studies have focused on diets that reduce calories via a low-carbohydrate (Atkins diet, Scarsdale diet, Zone diet) diet versus a low-fat diet (LEARN diet, Ornish diet). The Nurses’ Health Study, an observational cohort study, found that low carbohydrate diets based on vegetable sources of fat and protein are associated with less coronary heart disease. The same study also found no correlation (with multivariate adjustment) between animal fat intake and coronary heart disease (table 4). A long term study that monitored 43,396 Swedish women however suggests that a low carbohydrate-high protein diet, used on a regular basis and without consideration of the nature of carbohydrates or the source of proteins, is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials by the international Cochrane Collaboration in 2002 concluded that fat-restricted diets are no better than calorie-restricted diets in achieving long term weight loss in overweight or obese people. A more recent meta-analysis that included randomized controlled trials published after the Cochrane review found that low-carbohydrate, non-energy-restricted diets appear to be at least as effective as low-fat, energy-restricted diets in inducing weight loss for up to 1 year. These results can be understood because weight loss is mainly governed by daily caloric deficit and not by the particular foods eaten. However, when low-carbohydrate diets to induce weight loss are considered, potential favorable changes in triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol values should be weighed against potential unfavorable changes in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol values.”

The Women’s Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Dietary Modification Trial found that a diet of total fat to 20% of energy and increasing consumption of vegetables and fruit to at least 5 servings daily and grains to at least 6 servings daily resulted in:

  • no reduction in cardiovascular disease
  • no statistically significant reduction in invasive breast cancer
  • no reductions in colorectal cancer

Additional randomized controlled trials found that:

  • A comparison of Atkins, Zone diet, Ornish diet, and LEARN diet in premenopausal women found the greatest benefit from the Atkins diet.
  • The choice of diet for a specific person may be influenced by measuring the individual’s insulin secretion:

In young adults “Reducing glycemic load may be especially important to achieve weight loss among individuals with high insulin secretion.” This is consistent with prior studies of diabetic patients in which low carbohydrate diets were more beneficial.

The American Diabetes Association recommended a low carbohydrate diet to reduce weight for those with or at risk of Type 2 diabetes in its January 2008 Clinical Practice Recommendations.

Low glycemic index

“The glycemic index (GI) factor is a ranking of foods based on their overall effect on blood sugar levels. The diet based around this research is called the Low GI diet. Low glycemic index foods, such as lentils, provide a slower, more consistent source of glucose to the bloodstream, thereby stimulating less insulin release than high glycemic index foods, such as white bread.”

The glycemic load is “the mathematical product of the glycemic index and the carbohydrate amount”.

In a randomized controlled trial that compared four diets that varied in carbohydrate amount and glycemic index found complicated results:

  • Diet 1 and 2 were high carbohydrate (55% of total energy intake)
    • Diet 1 was high-glycemic index
    • Diet 2 was low-glycemic index
  • Diet 3 and 4 were high protein (25% of total energy intake)
    • Diet 3 was high-glycemic index
    • Diet 4 was low-glycemic index

Diets 2 and 3 lost the most weight and fat mass; however, low density lipoprotein fell in Diet 2 and rose in Diet 3. Thus the authors concluded that the high-carbohydrate, low-glycemic index diet was the most favorable.

A meta-analysis by the Cochrane Collaboration concluded that low glycemic index or low glycemic load diets led to more weight loss and better lipid profiles. However, the Cochrane Collaboration grouped low glycemic index and low glycemic load diets together and did not try to separate the effects of the load versus the index.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Strychar I (January 2006). “Diet in the management of weight loss”. CMAJ. (1): 56–63. doi:10.1503/cmaj.045037. PMC 1319349 . PMID 16389240. 
  2. ^ Sacks FM, Bray GA, Carey VJ, et al. (February 2009). “Comparison of Weight-Loss Diets with Different Compositions of Fat, Protein, and Carbohydrates”. N. Engl. J. Med. (9): 859–73. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa0804748. PMC 2763382 . PMID 19246357. 
  3. ^ Guth, Eve (3 September 2014). “Healthy Weight Loss”. JAMA. (9): 974. doi:10.1001/jama.2014.10929. PMID 25182116. Retrieved 29 November 2014. 
  4. ^ Mann, T; Tomiyama, AJ; Westling, E; Lew, AM; Samuels, B; Chatman, J (April 2007). “Medicare’s search for effective obesity treatments: diets are not the answer”. The American Psychologist. (3): 220–33. doi:10.1037/0003-066x.62.3.220. PMID 17469900. In sum, there is little support for the notion that diets lead to lasting weight loss or health benefits. 
  5. ^ Anderson, James; Elizabeth C Konz; Robert C Frederich; Constance L Wood (November 2001). “Long-term weight-loss maintenance: a meta-analysis of US studies”. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. (5): 579–584. PMID 11684524. Retrieved 22 December 2013. 
  6. ^ a b c Bacon L, Aphramor L.; Aphramor (2011). “Weight science: evaluating the evidence for a paradigm shift”. Nutr J. : 9. doi:10.1186/1475-2891-10-9. PMC 3041737 . PMID 21261939. 
  7. ^ a b Harrington M, Gibson S, Cottrell RC; Gibson; Cottrell (2009). “A review and meta-analysis of the effect of weight loss on all-cause mortality risk”. Nutr Res Rev. (1): 93–108. doi:10.1017/S0954422409990035. PMID 19555520. 
  8. ^ a b c Kendall Powell (31 May 2007). “The Two Faces of Fat”. Nature. (7144): 525–7. doi:10.1038/447525a. PMID 17538594. 
  9. ^ a b Jennifer Petrelli; Kathleen Y. Wolin (2009). Obesity (Biographies of Disease). Westport, Conn: Greenwood. p. 11. ISBN 0-313-35275-5. 
  10. ^ “The Ethics of Diet – A Catena”. Retrieved 17 December 2012. 
  11. ^ Elliott Proctor Joslin (2005). Joslin’s Diabetes Mellitus: Edited by C. Ronald Kahn … . Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-7817-2796-9. Retrieved 20 June 2013. 
  12. ^ Laurence D. Chalem (5 September 2009). Essential Diabetes Leadership. Laurence Chalem. p. 39. ISBN 978-1-4392-4566-8. Retrieved 20 June 2013. 
  13. ^ “CORPULENCE”. Britannica (11 ed.). 1911. Retrieved 26 December 2007. 
  14. ^ Groves, PhD, Barry (2002). “WILLIAM BANTING: The Father of the Low-Carbohydrate Diet”. Second Opinions. Retrieved 26 December 2007. 
  15. ^ Banting, William (2005) . Letter on Corpulence. USA: New York: Cosimo Classics. pp. 64 pages. ISBN 978-1-59605-085-3. Retrieved 28 December 2007. 
  16. ^ See also ISBN 0-9543975-1-7.
  17. ^ Kawash, Samira (2013). Candy: A Century of Panic and Pleasure. New York: Faber & Faber, Incorporated. pp. 185–189. ISBN 9780865477568. 
  18. ^ a b c White, Ellen G (1938). Counsels on Diet and Foods (PDF). ePub. 
  19. ^ a b Bloomer, Richard J; Mohammad M Kabir; Robert E Canale; John F Trepanowski; Kate E Marshall; Tyler M Farney; Kelley G Hammond (2010). “Effect of a 21 day Daniel Fast on metabolic and cardiovascular disease risk factors in men and women” (PDF). Lipids in Health and Disease. : 94. doi:10.1186/1476-511X-9-94. PMC 2941756 . PMID 20815907. 
  20. ^ “Archived copy”. Archived from the original on 27 December 2014. Retrieved 14 February 2016. 
  21. ^ “Cochrane for Clinicians: Are Low-Fat Diets Better than Other Weight-Reducing Diets in Achieving Long-Term Weight Loss? – American Family Physician”. 
  22. ^ “Why is Proper Nutrition Important?”. Retrieved 26 July 2010. 
  23. ^ “Dietary Guidelines”. Archived from the original on 27 May 2010. Retrieved 26 July 2010. 
  24. ^ Trapp, Caroline B.; Barnard, Neal D. (2010-04-01). “Usefulness of vegetarian and vegan diets for treating type 2 diabetes”. Current Diabetes Reports. (2): 152–158. doi:10.1007/s11892-010-0093-7. ISSN 1539-0829. PMID 20425575. 
  25. ^ Ornish, D.; Brown, S. E.; Scherwitz, L. W.; Billings, J. H.; Armstrong, W. T.; Ports, T. A.; McLanahan, S. M.; Kirkeeide, R. L.; Brand, R. J. (1990-07-21). “Can lifestyle changes reverse coronary heart disease? The Lifestyle Heart Trial”. Lancet. (8708): 129–133. doi:10.1016/0140-6736(90)91656-u. ISSN 0140-6736. PMID 1973470. 
  26. ^ O’Rourke, Brian; Cortassa, Sonia; Aon, Miguel A. (2005-10-01). “Mitochondrial Ion Channels: Gatekeepers of Life and Death”. Physiology. (5): 303–315. doi:10.1152/physiol.00020.2005. ISSN 1548-9213. PMC 2739045 . PMID 16174870. 
  27. ^ Hellmich, Nanci (8 July 2008). “Using food diaries doubles weight loss, study shows”. USA Today. Retrieved 1 May 2010. 
  28. ^ Sørensen TI, Rissanen A, Korkeila M, Kaprio J; Rissanen; Korkeila; Kaprio (2005). “Intention to Lose Weight, Weight Changes, and 18-y Mortality in Overweight Individuals without Co-Morbidities”. PLoS Medicine. (6; e171): e171. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0020171. PMC 1160579 . PMID 15971946. 
  29. ^ Ingram DD, Mussolino ME.; Mussolino (2010). “Weight loss from maximum body weight and mortality: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Linked Mortality File”. Int J Obes. (6): 1044–1050. doi:10.1038/ijo.2010.41. PMID 20212495. 
  30. ^ Halton TL, Willett WC, Liu S, et al. (2006). “Low-carbohydrate-diet score and the risk of coronary heart disease in women”. N. Engl. J. Med. (19): 1991–2002. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa055317. PMID 17093250. 
  31. ^ Lagiou P, Sandin S, Lof M, Trichopoulos D, Adami HO, Weiderpass E.; Sandin; Lof; Trichopoulos; Adami; Weiderpass (26 June 2012). “Low carbohydrate-high protein diet and incidence of cardiovascular diseases in Swedish women: prospective cohort study”. British Medical Journal. : e4026. doi:10.1136/bmj.e4026. PMC 3383863 . PMID 22735105. 
  32. ^ Pirozzo S, Summerbell C, Cameron C, Glasziou P; Summerbell; Cameron; Glasziou (2002). Pirozzo, Sandi, ed. “Advice on low-fat diets for obesity”. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2): CD003640. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003640. PMID 12076496. 
  33. ^ Samaha FF, Iqbal N, Seshadri P, et al. (2003). “A low-carbohydrate as compared with a low-fat diet in severe obesity”. N. Engl. J. Med. (21): 2074–81. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa022637. PMID 12761364. 
  34. ^ Foster GD, Wyatt HR, Hill JO, et al. (2003). “A randomized trial of a low-carbohydrate diet for obesity”. N. Engl. J. Med. (21): 2082–90. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa022207. PMID 12761365. 
  35. ^ Dansinger ML, Gleason JA, Griffith JL, Selker HP, Schaefer EJ (January 2005). “Comparison of the Atkins, Ornish, Weight Watchers, and Zone diets for weight loss and heart disease risk reduction: a randomized trial”. JAMA. : 43–53. doi:10.1001/jama.293.1.43. PMID 15632335. 
  36. ^ “The Science of Dieting”. Retrieved 21 September 2015. 
  37. ^ Nordmann AJ, Nordmann A, Briel M, et al. (2006). “Effects of low-carbohydrate vs low-fat diets on weight loss and cardiovascular risk factors: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials”. Arch. Intern. Med. (3): 285–93. doi:10.1001/archinte.166.3.285. PMID 16476868. 
  38. ^ Howard BV, Manson JE, Stefanick ML; et al. (2006). “Low-fat dietary pattern and weight change over 7 years: the Women’s Health Initiative Dietary Modification Trial”. JAMA. (1): 39–49. doi:10.1001/jama.295.1.39. PMID 16391215. 
  39. ^ Howard BV, Van Horn L, Hsia J, et al. (2006). “Low-fat dietary pattern and risk of cardiovascular disease: the Women’s Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Dietary Modification Trial”. JAMA. (6): 655–66. doi:10.1001/jama.295.6.655. PMID 16467234. 
  40. ^ Prentice RL, Caan B, Chlebowski RT, et al. (2006). “Low-fat dietary pattern and risk of invasive breast cancer: the Women’s Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Dietary Modification Trial”. JAMA. (6): 629–42. doi:10.1001/jama.295.6.629. PMID 16467232. 
  41. ^ Beresford SA, Johnson KC, Ritenbaugh C, et al. (2006). “Low-fat dietary pattern and risk of colorectal cancer: the Women’s Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Dietary Modification Trial”. JAMA. (6): 643–54. doi:10.1001/jama.295.6.643. PMID 16467233. 
  42. ^ Gardner CD, Kiazand A, Alhassan S, et al. (2007). “Comparison of the Atkins, Zone, Ornish, and LEARN diets for change in weight and related risk factors among overweight premenopausal women: the A TO Z Weight Loss Study: a randomized trial”. JAMA. (9): 969–77. doi:10.1001/jama.297.9.969. PMID 17341711. 
  43. ^ Ebbeling CB, Leidig MM, Feldman HA, Lovesky MM, Ludwig DS (2007). “Effects of a low-glycemic load vs low-fat diet in obese young adults: a randomized trial”. JAMA. (19): 2092–102. doi:10.1001/jama.297.19.2092. PMID 17507345. 
  44. ^ Stern L, Iqbal N, Seshadri P, et al. (2004). “The effects of low-carbohydrate versus conventional weight loss diets in severely obese adults: one-year follow-up of a randomized trial”. Ann. Intern. Med. (10): 778–85. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-140-10-200405180-00007. PMID 15148064. 
  45. ^ Garg A, Bantle JP, Henry RR, et al. (1994). “Effects of varying carbohydrate content of diet in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus”. JAMA. (18): 1421–8. doi:10.1001/jama.271.18.1421. PMID 7848401. 
  46. ^ American Diabetes Association; Bantle, JP; Wylie-Rosett, J; Albright, AL; Apovian, CM; Clark, NG; Franz, MJ; Hoogwerf, BJ; et al. (2008). “Nutrition Recommendations and Interventions for Diabetes”. Diabetes Care. (Suppl 1): S61–78. doi:10.2337/dc08-S061. PMID 18165339. 
  47. ^ Thomas, Diana; Elliott, Elizabeth J.; Baur, Louise (31 July 2006). Written at University of Sydney, Children’s Hospital at Westmead, CEBPGAN (Centre for Evidence Based Paediatrics Gastroenterology and Nutrition. Thomas, Diana, ed. “Low glycaemic index or low glycaemic load diets for overweight and obesity” (PDF). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. USA: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. (published 18 July 2007). (3): CD005105. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005105.pub2. PMID 17636786. 
  48. ^ Jenkins, D.J.; Wolever, T.M.; Taylor, R.H.; Barker, H.; Fielden, H.; Baldwin, J.M.; Bowling, A.C.; Newman, H.C.; et al. (March 1981). “Glycemic index of foods: a physiological basis for carbohydrate exchange” (PDF). American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. USA: The American Society for Clinical Nutrition, Inc. (3): 362–6. PMID 6259925. 
  49. ^ Brand-Miller, Janette Cecile; Thomas, M.; Swan, V.; Ahmad, Z.I.; Petocz, P.; Colagiuri, S. (2003). Written at Human Nutrition Unit, School of Molecular and Microbial Biosciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia. “Physiological Validation of the Concept of Glycemic Load in Lean Young Adults” (PDF). The Journal of Nutrition. USA: The American Society for Nutritional Sciences (published September 2003). (9): 2728–32. PMID 12949357. 
  50. ^ McMillan-Price, J.; Petocz, P.; Atkinson, F.; O’neill, K.; Samman, S.; Steinbeck, K.; Caterson, I.; Brand-Miller, Janette Cecile (2006). Written at Human Nutrition Unit, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia. “Comparison of 4 Diets of Varying Glycemic Load on Weight Loss and Cardiovascular Risk Reduction in Overweight and Obese Young Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial” (PDF). Archives of Internal Medicine. USA: American Medical Association (published 24 July 2006). (14): 1466–75. doi:10.1001/archinte.166.14.1466. PMID 16864756. 
  51. ^ Thomas DE, Elliott E, Baur L (2007). Thomas, Diana, ed. “Low glycaemic index or low glycaemic load diets for overweight and obesity”. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (3): CD005105. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005105.pub2. PMID 17636786. 

Further reading

  • American Dietetic Association (2003). “Position Paper on Vegetarian Diets”. J Am Diet Assoc. : 748–765. doi:10.1053/jada.2003.50142. PMID 12778049. 
  • Cheraskin Emmanuel (1993). “The Breakfast/Lunch/Dinner Ritual”. Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine. (1). 
  • Dansinger, M.L., Gleason, J. L., Griffith, J.L., et al., “One Year Effectiveness of the Atkins, Ornish, Weight Watchers, and Zone Diets in Decreasing Body Weight and Heart Disease Risk”, Presented at the American Heart Association Scientific Sessions, Orlando, Florida, 12 November 2003.
  • Schwartz, Hillel. Never Satisfied: A Cultural History of Diets, Fantasies, and Fat. New York: Free Press/Macmillan, 1986.
  • Wansink, B. Mindless Eating: Why We Eat More Than We Think, New York: Bantam Dell (2006).

External links

  • Dieting at Curlie (based on DMOZ)
  • A PBS Frontline interview with Prof. Walter Willett, Chair of Harvard’s nutrition department (2004)
  • “Not All Calories Are Created Equal, Author Says”. Excerpt from Good Calories, Bad Calories and NPR interview with Gary Taubes and Dr. Ronald Krauss (2 November 2007).
  • The food pyramid: Video lectures at the Harvard School of public health
  • US News and World Report, Health: Eat Like Our Ancestors. An Interview with Harvard Psychology’s Deirdre Barrett 6/29/07

en.wikipedia.org

An individual’s diet is the sum of food and drink that he or she habitually consumes. Dieting is the practice of attempting to achieve or maintain a certain weight through diet. People’s dietary choices are often affected by a variety of factors, including ethical and religious beliefs, clinical need, or a desire to control weight.

Not all diets are considered healthy. Some people follow unhealthy diets through habit, rather than through a conscious choice to eat unhealthily. Terms applied to such eating habits include “junk food diet” and “Western diet”. Many diets are considered by clinicians to pose significant health risks and minimal long-term benefit. This is particularly true of “crash” or “fad” diets – short-term weight-loss plans that involve drastic changes to a person’s normal eating habits.

Only diets covered on Wikipedia are listed.

Vegetarian diets

A vegetarian diet is one which excludes meat. Vegetarians also avoid food containing by-products of animal slaughter, such as animal-derived rennet and gelatin.

  • Fruitarian diet: A diet which predominantly consists of raw fruit.
  • Lacto vegetarianism: A vegetarian diet that includes certain types of dairy, but excludes eggs and foods which contain animal rennet. A common diet among followers of several religions, including Hinduism, Sikhism and Jainism, based on the principle of Ahimsa (non-harming).
  • Ovo vegetarianism: A vegetarian diet that includes eggs, but excludes dairy.
  • Ovo-lacto vegetarianism: A vegetarian diet that includes eggs and dairy.
  • Vegan diet: In addition to the abstentions of a vegetarian diet, vegans do not use any product produced by animals, such as eggs, dairy products, or honey. The vegan philosophy and lifestyle is broader than just the diet and also includes abstaining from using any products tested on animals and often campaigning for animal rights.

Semi-vegetarian diets

  • Semi-vegetarianism: A predominantly vegetarian diet, in which meat is occasionally consumed.
  • Kangatarian: A diet originating from Australia. In addition to foods permissible in a vegetarian diet, kangaroo meat is also consumed.
  • Pescetarian diet: A diet which includes fish but not other meats.
  • Plant-based diet: A broad term to describe diets in which animal products do not form a large proportion of the diet. Under some definitions a plant-based diet is fully vegetarian; under others it is possible to follow a plant-based diet whilst occasionally consuming meat.
  • Pollotarian: someone who eats chicken or other poultry, but not meat from mammals, often for environmental, health or food justice reasons.
  • Pollo-pescetarian: someone who eats both poultry and fish/seafood, though no meat from mammals.

Weight control diets

A desire to lose weight is a common motivation to change dietary habits, as is a desire to maintain an existing weight. Many weight loss diets are considered by some to entail varying degrees of health risk, and some are not widely considered to be effective. This is especially true of “crash” or “fad” diets.

Many of the diets listed below could fall into more than one subcategory. Where this is the case, it is noted in that diet’s entry.

Low-calorie diets

  • Intermittent fasting: Cycling between non-fasting and fasting as a method of calorie restriction.
  • Body for Life: A calorie-control diet, promoted as part of the 12-week Body for Life program.
  • Cookie diet: A calorie control diet in which low-fat cookies are eaten to quell hunger, often in place of a meal.
  • The Hacker’s Diet: A calorie-control diet from The Hacker’s Diet by John Walker. The book suggests that the key to reaching and maintaining the desired weight is understanding and carefully monitoring calories consumed and used.
  • Nutrisystems Diet: The dietary element of the weight-loss plan from Nutrisystem, Inc. Nutrisystem distributes low-calorie meals, with specific ratios of fats, proteins and carbohydrates.
  • Weight Watchers diet: Foods are assigned point values; dieters can eat any food with a point value provided they stay within their daily point limit.

Very low calorie diets

A very low calorie diet is consuming fewer than 800 calories per day. Such diets are normally followed under the supervision of a doctor. Zero-calorie diets are also included.

  • Inedia (breatharian diet): A diet in which no food is consumed, based on the belief that food is not necessary for human subsistence.
  • KE diet: A diet in which an individual feeds through a feeding tube and does not eat anything.

Low-carbohydrate diets

  • Atkins diet: A low-carbohydrate diet, popularized by nutritionist Robert Atkins in the late-20th and early-21st centuries. Proponents argue that this approach is a more successful way of losing weight than low-calorie diets; critics argue that a low-carb approach poses increased health risks. The Atkins diet consists of four phases (Induction, Balancing, Fine-Tuning and Maintenance) with a gradual increase in consumption of carbohydrates as the person goes through the phases.
  • Dukan Diet: A multi-step diet based on high protein and limited carbohydrate consumption. It starts with two steps intended to facilitate short term weight loss, followed by two steps intended to consolidate these losses and return to a more balanced long-term diet.
  • South Beach Diet: Diet developed by the Miami-based cardiologist Arthur Agatston, M.D., who says that the key to losing weight quickly and getting healthy isn’t cutting all carbohydrates and fats from your diet. It’s learning to choose the right carbs and the right fats.
  • Stillman diet

Low-fat diets

  • McDougall’s starch diet is a high calorie, high fiber, low fat diet that is based on starches such as potatoes, rice, and beans which excludes all animal foods and added vegetable oils. John A. McDougall draws on historical observation of how many civilizations around the world throughout time have thrived on starch foods.

Crash diets

Crash diet and fad diet are general terms. They describe diet plans which involve making extreme, rapid changes to food consumption, but are also used as disparaging terms for common eating habits which are considered unhealthy. Both types of diet are often considered to pose health risks. Many of the diets listed here are weight-loss diets which would also fit into other sections of this list. Where this is the case, it will be noted in that diet’s entry.

  • Beverly Hills Diet: An extreme diet which has only fruits in the first days, gradually increasing the selection of foods up to the sixth week.
  • Cabbage soup diet: A low-calorie diet based on heavy consumption of cabbage soup. Considered a fad diet.
  • Grapefruit diet: A fad diet, intended to facilitate weight loss, in which grapefruit is consumed in large quantities at meal times.
  • Israeli Army diet: An eight-day diet. Only apples are consumed in the first two days, cheese in the following two days, chicken on days five and six, and salad for the final two days. Despite what the name suggests, the diet is not followed by Israel Defense Forces. It is considered a fad diet.
  • Subway diet: A crash diet in which a person consumes Subway sandwiches in place of higher calorie fast foods. Made famous by former obese student Jared Fogle, who lost 245 pounds after replacing his meals with Subway sandwiches as part of an effort to lose weight.
  • Western dietary pattern: A diet consisting of food which is most commonly consumed in developed countries. Examples include meat, white bread, milk and puddings. The name is a reference to the Western world.

Detox diets

Detox diets involve either not consuming or attempting to flush out substances that are considered unhelpful or harmful. Examples include restricting food consumption to foods without colorings or preservatives, taking supplements, or drinking large amounts of water. The latter practice in particular has drawn criticism, as drinking significantly more water than recommended levels can cause hyponatremia.

  • Juice fasting: A form of detox diet, in which nutrition is obtained solely from fruit and vegetable juices. The health implications of such diets are disputed.
  • Master Cleanse: A form of juice fasting.

Belief-based diets

Some people’s dietary choices are influenced by their religious, spiritual or philosophical beliefs.

  • Buddhist diet: While Buddhism does not have specific dietary rules, some buddhists practice vegetarianism based on a strict interpretation of the first of the Five Precepts.
  • Hindu and Jain diets: Followers of Hinduism and Jainism may follow lacto vegetarian diets (though most do not, as some Hindu festivals require meat to be eaten), based on the principle of ahimsa (non-harming).
  • Islamic dietary laws: Muslims follow a diet consisting solely of food that is halal – permissible under Islamic law. The opposite of halal is haraam, food that is Islamically Impermissible. Haraam substances include alcohol, pork, and any meat from an animal which was not killed through the Islamic method of ritual slaughter (Dhabiha).
  • I-tal: A set of principles which influences the diet of many members of the Rastafari movement. One principle is that natural foods should be consumed. Some Rastafarians interpret I-tal to advocate vegetarianism or veganism.
  • Kosher diet: Food permissible under Kashrut, the set of Jewish dietary laws, is said to be Kosher. Some foods and food combinations are non-Kosher, and failure to prepare food in accordance with Kashrut can make otherwise permissible foods non-Kosher.
  • Seventh-day Adventist: Seventh-day Adventists combine the Kosher rules of Judaism with prohibitions against alcohol and caffeinated beverages and an emphasis on whole foods. About half of Adventists are lacto-ovo-vegetarians.
  • Word of Wisdom: The name of a section of the Doctrine and Covenants, a book of scripture accepted by members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Dietary advice includes (1) wholesome plants “in the season thereof”, (2) eating meat sparingly and only “in times of winter, or of cold, or famine”, and (3) grain as the “staff of life”.

Diets followed for medical reasons

People’s dietary choices are sometimes affected by intolerance or allergy to certain types of food. There are also dietary patterns that might be recommended, prescribed or administered by medical professionals for people with specific medical needs.

  • Diabetic diet: An umbrella term for diets recommended to people with diabetes. There is considerable disagreement in the scientific community as to what sort of diet is best for people with diabetes.
  • DASH diet (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension): A recommendation that those with high blood pressure consume large quantities of fruits, vegetables, whole-grains and low fat dairy foods as part of their diet, and avoid sugar sweetened foods, red meat and fats. Promoted by the US Department of Health and Human Services, a United States government organisation.
  • Elemental diet: A medical, liquid-only diet, in which liquid nutrients are consumed for ease of ingestion.
  • Elimination diet: A method of identifying foods which cause a person adverse effects, by process of elimination.
  • Gluten-free diet: A diet which avoids the protein gluten, which is found in barley, rye and wheat. It is a medical treatment for gluten-related disorders, which include coeliac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity, gluten ataxia, dermatitis herpetiformis and wheat allergy.
    • Gluten-free, casein-free diet: A gluten-free diet which also avoids casein, a protein commonly found in milk and cheese.
  • Healthy kidney diet: This diet is for those impacted with chronic kidney disease, those with only one kidney who have a kidney infection and those who may be suffering from some other kidney failure. This diet is not the dialysis diet, which is something completely different. The healthy kidney diet restricts large amounts of protein which are hard for the kidney to break down but especially limits: potassium and phosphorus-rich foods and beverages. Liquids are often restricted as well—not forbidden, just less of.
  • Ketogenic diet: A high-fat, low-carb diet, in which dietary and body fat is converted into energy. It is used as a medical treatment for refractory epilepsy.
  • Liquid diet: A diet in which only liquids are consumed. May be administered by clinicians for medical reasons, such as after a gastric bypass or to prevent death through starvation from a hunger strike.
  • Specific carbohydrate diet: A diet that aims to restrict the intake of complex carbohydrates such as found in grains and complex sugars. It is promoted as a way of reducing the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, coeliac disease, and autism.

Other diets

  • Alkaline diet: The avoidance of relatively acidic foods – foods with low pH levels – such as grains, dairy, meat, sugar, alcohol, caffeine and fungi. Proponents believe such a diet may have health benefits; critics consider the arguments to have no scientific basis.
  • Blood type diet: A diet based on a belief that people’s diets should reflect their blood types.
  • Eat-clean diet: Focusses on eating foods without preservatives, and on mixing lean proteins with complex carbohydrates.
  • Fit for Life diet: Recommendations include not combining protein and carbohydrates, not drinking water at meal time, and avoiding dairy foods.
  • Food combining diet: A nutritional approach where certain food types are deliberately consumed together or separately. For instance, some weight control diets suggest that proteins and carbohydrates should not be consumed in the same meal.
  • Gerson therapy: A form of alternative medicine, the diet is low salt, low fat and vegetarian, and also involves taking specific supplements. It was developed by Max Gerson, who claimed the therapy could cure cancer and chronic, degenerative diseases. These claims have not been scientifically proven, and the American Cancer Society claims that elements of the therapy have caused serious illness and death.
  • The Graham Diet: A vegetarian diet which promotes whole-wheat flour and discourages the consumption of stimulants such as alcohol and caffeine. Developed by Sylvester Graham in the 19th century.
  • Hay diet: A food-combining diet developed by William Howard Hay in the 1920s. Divides foods into separate groups, and suggests that proteins and carbohydrates should not be consumed in the same meal.
  • High-protein diet: A diet in which high quantities of protein are consumed with the intention of building muscle. Not to be confused with low-carb diets, where the intention is to lose weight by restricting carbohydrates.
  • High residue diet: A diet in which high quantities of dietary fiber are consumed. High-fiber foods include certain fruits, vegetables, nuts and grains.

Sharing of frozen, aged

walrus

meat among

Inuit

families.

  • Inuit diet: Inuit people traditionally consume food that is fished, hunted or gathered locally; predominantly meat and fish.
  • Jenny Craig: A weight-loss program from Jenny Craig, Inc. It includes weight counselling among other elements. The dietary aspect involves the consumption of pre-packaged food produced by the company.
  • Locavore diet: a neologism describing the eating of food that is locally produced, and not moved long distances to market.
  • Low carbon diet: Consuming food which has been produced, prepared and transported with a minimum of associated greenhouse gas emissions. An example of this was explored in the book 100-Mile Diet, in which the authors only consumed food grown within 100 miles of their residence for a year. People who follow this type of diet are sometimes known as locavores.
  • Low-fat diet
  • Low glycemic index diet
  • Low-protein diet
  • Low sodium diet
  • Low-sulfur diet

Some common macrobiotic ingredients

  • Macrobiotic diet: A diet in which processed food is avoided. Common components include grains, beans and vegetables.
  • Mediterranean diet: A diet based on habits of some southern European countries. One of the more distinct features is that olive oil is used as the primary source of fat.
  • MIND diet: combines the portions of the DASH diet and the Mediterranean diet. The diet is intended to reduce neurological deterioration such as Alzheimer’s disease.
  • Montignac diet: A weight-loss diet characterised by consuming carbohydrates with a low glycemic index.
  • Negative calorie diet: A claim by many weight-loss diets that some foods take more calories to digest than they provide, such as celery. The basis for this claim is disputed.
  • Okinawa diet: A low-calorie diet based on the traditional eating habits of people from the Ryukyu Islands.
  • Omnivore: An omnivore consumes both plant and animal-based food.
  • Organic food diet: A diet consisting only of food which is organic – it has not been produced with modern inputs such as chemical fertilizers, genetic modification, irradiation or food additives.
  • Paleolithic diet: Can refer either to the eating habits of humans during the Paleolithic era, or of modern dietary plans purporting to be based on these habits.
  • Prison loaf: A meal replacement served in some United States prisons to inmates who are not trusted to use cutlery. Its composition varies between institutions and states, but as a replacement for standard food, it is intended to provide inmates with all their dietary needs.
  • Pritikin Program for Diet and Exercise: A diet which focusses on the consumption of unprocessed food.
  • Raw foodism: A diet which centres on the consumption of uncooked and unprocessed food. Often associated with a vegetarian diet, although some raw food dieters do consume raw meat.
  • Scarsdale Medical Diet
  • Shangri-La Diet
  • Slimming World diet
  • Slow-carb diet
  • Smart For Life
  • Sonoma diet: A diet based on portion control and centered around consuming “power foods”
  • SparkPeople diet
  • Sugar Busters!: Focuses on restricting the consumption of refined carbohydrates, particularly sugars.
  • Tongue Patch Diet: Stitching a Marlex patch to the tongue to make eating painful.
  • Zone diet: A diet in which a person attempts to split calorie intake from carbohydrates, proteins and fats in a 40:30:30 ratio.

See also

References

  1. ^ “Definition for diet”. Oxford Dictionaries. Retrieved 13 February 2012.
  2. ^ a b “What is a vegetarian?”. Vegetarian Society. Retrieved 13 February 2012.
  3. ^ “Let them eat air…”. The Guardian. 28 September 1999. Retrieved 10 March 2012.
  4. ^ a b Hunter, Fiona (April 2011). “Vegetarian and vegan diets”. BBC Health. Retrieved 12 March 2012.
  5. ^ a b (Dasa, Shukavak N.) “Non Harming: Ahimsa” Archived 8 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine.. Devasthanam. Retrieved 12 March 2012.
  6. ^ Fellowes, Jessica (14 November 2008). “The new vegetarianism: introducing the flexitarian”. The Telegraph. Retrieved 10 March 2012.
  7. ^ Barone, Tayissa (9 February 2010). “Kangatarians jump the divide”. Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 17 January 2012.
  8. ^ “Plant Based Diets”. U.S. News & World Report. U.S. News & World Report Health. Retrieved 11 August 2014. 
  9. ^ Mattson, MP (February 4, 2014). “Fasting: molecular mechanisms and clinical applications”. Cell Metabolism. (1932-7420): 181–92. doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2013.12.008. PMC 3946160 . PMID 24440038. 
  10. ^ “Body for Life Program Review: Does It Work?”. Retrieved 2016-09-19. 
  11. ^ Schmall, Emily (17 November 2008). “Bite fight”. Forbes. Retrieved 13 February 2012.
  12. ^ “How does Nutrisystem Diet work?”. Retrieved 11 December 2016. 
  13. ^ Devlin, Kate (2 September 2008). “Atkins diet and Weight Watchers ‘the best ways to lose weight'”. The Telegraph. Retrieved 15 February 2012.
  14. ^ “Very low calorie diet for rapid weight loss”. Calorie Counter. 19 October 2010. Retrieved 13 February 2012.
  15. ^ “All they need is the air”. BBC News. 22 September 1999. Retrieved 13 February 2012.
  16. ^ “Tube Feeding: What’s Wrong with the Latest Wedding Crash Diet?”. TIME Magazine. Retrieved 18 April 2014. 
  17. ^ Witchel, Alex (27 November 1996). “Refighting The Battle Of the Bulge”. New York Times. Retrieved 29 October 2009.
  18. ^ “Scientists endorse Atkins diet”. BBC News. 17 May 2004. Retrieved 13 February 2012.
  19. ^ “Low carb diet health risk fears”. BBC News. 17 March 2006. Retrieved 13 February 2012.
  20. ^ “What is Atkins Diet?”. Retrieved 12 December 2016. 
  21. ^ Samuel, Henry (1 June 2011). “The four stages of the Dukan diet”. The Telegraph. Retrieved 14 February 2011.
  22. ^ “The South Beach Diet”. Retrieved 12 December 2016. 
  23. ^ “Crash diets ‘may reduce lifespan'”. BBC News. 30 April 2008. Retrieved 13 February 2012.
  24. ^ “New Beverly Hills Diet”. EveryDiet.org. Retrieved 29 April 2012. The original Beverly Hills diet was published in 1981 and is regarded by many as being the first fad diet. 
  25. ^ “Health risk of ‘faddy diets'”. BBC News. 2 May 2001. Retrieved 13 February 2012.
  26. ^ “Grapefruit diet ‘put leg at risk'”. BBC News. 2 April 2009. Retrieved 11 March 2012.
  27. ^ Saxelby, Catherine. “How to spot fad diets”. AHM Health Insurance. Retrieved 13 February 2012.
  28. ^ a b Kingsley, Patrick (10 March 2011). “How a sandwich franchise ousted McDonald’s”. The Guardian. Retrieved 12 March 2012.
  29. ^ “Western diet risk to Asian women”. BBC News. 10 July 2007. Retrieved 15 February 2012.
  30. ^ “Woman left brain damaged by detox”. BBC News. 23 July 2008. Retrieved 13 February 2012.
  31. ^ Moores, Susan. “Experts warn of detox diet dangers”. MSNBC. Retrieved 12 March 2012.
  32. ^ Weintraub, Eileen. “Life as a Vegetarian Tibetan Buddhist Practitioner: A personal view”. Society of Ethical and Religious Vegetarians. Retrieved 13 February 2012.
  33. ^ “What do Halal, Dhabiha Halal and Haram Mean?”. halalcertified.com. Retrieved 11 March 2012.
  34. ^ “Rastafarianism”. University of Dundee. Retrieved 11 March 2012.
  35. ^ “Kosher Food 101: the Basics of Which Foods Are Kosher”. The Spruce. Retrieved 2017-10-12. 
  36. ^ “LLUMC Legacy: Daring to Care”. Adventist Health Study. Loma Linda University. Retrieved 3 February 2016. 
  37. ^ Doctrine and Covenants 89:10-17
  38. ^ “Your guide to lowering your blood pressure with DASH”. US Department of Health and Human Services. April 2006. Retrieved 28 December 2011.
  39. ^ “Elemental diet” Archived 6 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine.. Food Hospital. Channel 4. Retrieved 14 February 2012.
  40. ^ “The elimination diet” Archived 9 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine.. National Health Service. 12 January 2010. Retrieved 14 February 2012.
  41. ^ Ludvigsson JF, Leffler DA, Bai JC, Biagi F, Fasano A, Green PH, Hadjivassiliou M, Kaukinen K, Kelly CP, Leonard JN, Lundin KE, Murray JA, Sanders DS, Walker MM, Zingone F, Ciacci C (January 2013). “The Oslo definitions for coeliac disease and related terms”. Gut. (1): 43–52. doi:10.1136/gutjnl-2011-301346. PMC 3440559 . PMID 22345659. 
  42. ^ Volta U, Caio G, De Giorgio R, Henriksen C, Skodje G, Lundin KE (Jun 2015). “Non-celiac gluten sensitivity: a work-in-progress entity in the spectrum of wheat-related disorders”. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. (3): 477–91. doi:10.1016/j.bpg.2015.04.006. PMID 26060112. After the confirmation of NCGS diagnosis, according to the previously mentioned work-up, patients are advized to start with a GFD . (…) NCGS patients can experience more symptoms than CD patients following a short gluten challenge . (NCGS=non-celiac gluten sensitivity; CD=coeliac disease; GFD=gluten-free diet) 
  43. ^ Mulder CJ, van Wanrooij RL, Bakker SF, Wierdsma N, Bouma G (2013). “Gluten-free diet in gluten-related disorders”. Dig Dis. (Review). (1): 57–62. doi:10.1159/000347180. PMID 23797124. The only treatment for CD, dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) and gluten ataxia is lifelong adherence to a GFD. 
  44. ^ Hischenhuber C, Crevel R, Jarry B, Mäki M, Moneret-Vautrin DA, Romano A, Troncone R, Ward R (Mar 1, 2006). “Review article: safe amounts of gluten for patients with wheat allergy or coeliac disease”. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. (5): 559–75. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2036.2006.02768.x. PMID 16480395. For both wheat allergy and coeliac disease the dietary avoidance of wheat and other gluten-containing cereals is the only effective treatment. 
  45. ^ a b “Nutrition”. 
  46. ^ “Dialysis Diet”. 
  47. ^ “Kidney-Friendly Diet & Foods for CKD – American Kidney Fund”. 
  48. ^ Huffman J, Kossoff EH (Jul 2006). “State of the ketogenic diet(s) in epilepsy” (PDF). Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. (4): 332–40. doi:10.1007/s11910-006-0027-6. PMID 16822355. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 December 2006. 
  49. ^ “Maradona has surgery on stomach”. BBC Sport. 6 March 2005. Retrieved 12 March 2012.
  50. ^ “India woman’s 10-year fast against anti-insurgent law”. BBC News. 3 November 2010. Retrieved 12 March 2012.
  51. ^ Dawson-Hughes, Bess (January 2008). “The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism”. Tufts University. Medpagetoday.com Retrieved 2 March 2011.
  52. ^ “Your Friday Dose of Woo: Acid, base, or woo (revisited)” Archived 11 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine.. Scienceblogs.com. 8 June 2007. Retrieved 13 February 2012.
  53. ^ Walden, Celia (16 June 2010). “The blood-type diet: Weight loss need not be in vein”. The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 13 February 2012.
  54. ^ Reno, Tosca. (2007). The Eat-Clean Diet. Robert Kennedy Publishing. ISBN 1-55210-038-3.
  55. ^ Davidson, Tish (2007). “Fit for Life diet”. In Longe, Jacqueline L. The Gale Encyclopedia of Diets: A Guide to Health and Nutrition. Gale, Thomson. pp. 383–385. ISBN 1-4144-2991-6. 
  56. ^ a b “Sophisticated diets ‘no advantage'”. BBC News. 6 April 2000. Retrieved 14 February 2012.
  57. ^ “Gerson Therapy”. American Cancer Society. Retrieved 22 April 2009.
  58. ^ “Sylvester Graham (1795-1851)”. International Vegetarian Union. Retrieved 11 March 2012.
  59. ^ “High Fiber Diet”. Mayo Clinic. 15 August 2009. Retrieved 11 October 2011.
  60. ^ Gill, Victoria (13 August 2010). “Scientist will live as an Inuit for one year”. BBC News. Retrieved 13 February 2012.
  61. ^ “How Jenny Craig works”. Jenny Craig, Inc. Retrieved 12 March 2012.
  62. ^ Smith, Alisa; Mackinnon, J.B. (March 2007). The 100-Mile Diet: A Year of Local Eating. Random House Canada. ISBN 0-679-31482-2.
  63. ^ Crace, John (3 June 2009). “The wholefood revolutionary”. The Guardian. Retrieved 12 March 2012.
  64. ^ “Low-fat, Mediterranean and low-carb diets ‘help heart'”. BBC News. 2 March 2010. Retrieved 12 March 2012.
  65. ^ Marcason, Wendy (2015). “What Are the Components to the MIND Diet?”. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Elsevier BV. (10): 1744. doi:10.1016/j.jand.2015.08.002. ISSN 2212-2672. 
  66. ^ Rhodes, Chloe (21 November 2005). “Diet another day: the Montignac diet”. The Telegraph. Retrieved 12 March 2012.
  67. ^ Snyderman, Nancy (6 May 2009). “There are no negative-calorie foods”. Time. Retrieved 12 March 2012.
  68. ^ “Definition for omnivore”. Oxford Dictionaries. Retrieved 13 March 2012.
  69. ^ Allen, Gary J. & Albala, Ken, eds. (2007). The business of food: encyclopedia of the food and drink industries. ABC-CLIO. p. 288. ISBN 978-0-313-33725-3. 
  70. ^ “Raw food eaters thin but healthy”. BBC News. 29 March 2005. Retrieved 11 March 2012.
  71. ^ Green, Emily (31 January 2001). “Meat but no heat”. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 11 March 2012.
  72. ^ Gorman, Christine (24 June 2001). “Sugar Busters!”. Time. Retrieved 12 March 2012.
  73. ^ “Study backs worth of Atkins diet”. BBC News. 7 March 2007. Retrieved 13 February 2012.

en.wikipedia.org
Jessica Alba Diet

Jessica Alba is an American actress, model and business owner (Honest Company). She has continuously been rated as one of the most beautiful women of the world. When she gets into a bikini, she…

Alyssa Milano Diet Plan

Alyssa Milano’s Low Carb Diet Alyssa Milano gave birth to her second child in September 2014. A few months later she left the entire world’s jaw-dropped after coming back strong losing 46 pounds of…

How Reese Witherspoon Stays Fit Without Fad Diets and Strict Exercise Plans

Reese Witherspoon, an American actress who played starring roles in popular movies such as Legally Blonde and Water for Elephants, among many others, is a major fitness role model. She is 40 years old…

Beyonce’s Weight Loss Plan

Beyonce’s 22 Day Challenge and Other Techniques Hollywood stars are held to a different standard when it comes to their body, particularly their weight at any given time. Beyonce, a well-known R&B performer, has…

Katy Perry’s Diet and Workouts

Katy Perry is one of the greatest pop star of our time. She is well admired and cherished by many of her fans. Fans not only enjoy her flamboyant appearances with enough energy for…

Lady Gaga’s Diet and Workout Plan

Known for her flamboyant sense of dress and controversial choices of attire and gestures, Lady Gaga is a darling of the media and the ultimate embodiment of fitness. She has been in the public…

The Secret Behind Zooey Deschanel’s Diet

We all know Zooey Deschanel. She is one of the more beautiful, talented and intelligent artists of our time. She has been a songwriter and television actress; plus web entrepreneur with her best friend…

Madonna’s Healthy Lifestyle Diet

Madonna is one of those artists that never fades away. Now, at 56 years old she has an athletic body many people admire. In fact, in her music video Hung Up, she did not…

Top 50 Beautiful Celebrity Beach Bodies

Just in time for summer 2016 we bring you the top 50 celebrity beach bodies. This is a comprehensive photo gallery and list of the best looking bodies achieved through working out and healthy…

How To Lose Belly Fat For Women

When it comes to working out and physical appearance, one area of concern for many women is the midsection. A flat stomach is the goal of most of the women on this planet. It…

www.dietdiet.com

Can what you eat help attention, focus, or hyperactivity? There’s no clear scientific evidence that ADHD is caused by diet or nutritional problems. But certain foods may play at least some role in affecting symptoms in a small group of people, research suggests.

So are there certain things you shouldn’t eat if you have the condition? Or if your child has it, should you change what he eats?

Here are answers to questions about elimination diets, supplements, and foods that may help symptoms of the disorder.

What Is an ADHD diet?

It may include the foods you eat and any nutritional supplements you may take. Ideally, your eating habits would help the brain work better and lessen symptoms, such as restlessness or lack of focus. You may hear about these choices that you could focus on:

Overall nutrition: The assumption is that some foods you eat may make your symptoms better or worse. You might also not be eating some things that could help make symptoms better.

Supplementation diet: With this plan you add vitamins, minerals, or other nutrients. The idea is that it could help you make up for not getting enough of these through what you eat. Supporters of these diets think that if you don’t get enough of certain nutrients, it may add to your symptoms.

Elimination diets: These involve not eating foods or ingredients that you think might be triggering certain behaviors or making your symptoms worse.

Overall Nutrition

ADHD diets haven’t been researched a lot. Data is limited and results are mixed. Many health experts, though, think that what you eat and drink may play a role in helping symptoms.

One expert, Richard Sogn, MD, says that whatever is good for the brain is likely to be good for ADHD. You may want to eat:

  • A high-protein diet. Beans, cheese, eggs, meat, and nuts can be good sources of protein. Eat these kinds of foods in the morning and for after-school snacks. It may help improve concentration and possibly make ADHD medications work for longer.
  • Fewer simple carbohydrates. Cut down on how many of these you eat: candy, corn syrup, honey, sugar, products made from white flour, white rice, and potatoes without the skins.
  • More complex carbohydrates. These are the good guys. Load up on vegetables and some fruits, including oranges, tangerines, pears, grapefruit, apples, and kiwi. Eat this type of food in the evening and it may help you sleep.
  • More omega-3 fatty acids. You can find these in tuna, salmon, and other cold-water white fish. Walnuts, Brazil nuts, and olive and canola oil are other foods with these in them. You could also take an omega-3 fatty acid supplement. The FDA approved an omega compound called Vayarin as part of an ADHD management strategy.

Continued Nutritional Supplements

Some experts recommend that people with ADHD take a 100% vitamin and mineral supplement each day. Other nutrition experts, though, think that people who eat a normal, balanced diet don’t need vitamin or micronutrient supplements. They say there’s no scientific evidence that vitamin or mineral supplements help all children with the disorder.

While a multivitamin may be OK when children, teens, and adults don’t eat balanced diets, mega-doses of vitamins can be toxic. Avoid them.

ADHD symptoms vary from person to person. Work with your doctor closely if you’re considering taking a supplement.

Elimination Diets and ADHD

To follow one of these you pick a particular food or ingredient you think might be making your symptoms worse. Then you don’t eat anything with that in it. If the symptoms get better or go away, then you keep avoiding that food.

If you cut a food from your diet, can it improve your symptoms? Research in all these areas is ongoing and the results are not clear-cut. Most scientists don’t recommend this approach for managing ADHD, though. Still, here are some common areas of concern and what the experts suggest:

Food additives

In 1975 an allergist first proposed that artificial colors, flavors, and preservatives might lead to hyperactivity in some children. Since then, researchers and child behavior experts have hotly debated this issue.

Some say the idea of cutting all those things out of a diet is unfounded and unsupported by scientific evidence. But one study has shown that some food coloring and one preservative did increase hyperactivity in some children. But the effects varied according to age and additive.

Based on this and other recent studies, the American Academy of Pediatrics now agrees that eliminating preservatives and food colorings from the diet is a reasonable option for children with ADHD. Some experts recommend that people with ADHD avoid these substances:

  • Artificial colors, especially red and yellow
  • Food additives such as aspartame, MSG (monosodium glutamate), and nitrites. Some studies have linked hyperactivity to the preservative sodium benzoate.

Sugar

Some children become hyperactive after eating candy or other sugary foods. No evidence suggests that this is a cause of ADHD, though. For the best overall nutrition, sugary foods should be a small part of anyone’s diet. But you can try cutting them to see if symptoms improve.

Continued

Caffeine

Small amounts of it may help with some ADHD symptoms in children, studies have shown. But the side effects of caffeine may outweigh any potential benefit. Most experts recommend that people eat or drink less caffeine or avoid it altogether. It you take medication for ADHD, caffeine can exacerbate some side effects.

www.webmd.com

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *