For which succinic acid is used in tablets

Preferred IUPAC name
Other names

Succinic acid

1,4-Butanedioic Acid

ChEBI
ChemSpider
DrugBank
ECHA InfoCard 100.003.402
E number E363 (antioxidants, …)
UNII
C4H6O4
Molar mass 118.09 g·mol−1
Density 1.56 g/cm3
Melting point 184 °C (363 °F; 457 K)
Boiling point 235 °C (455 °F; 508 K)
58 g/L (20 °C) or 100 mg/mL
Solubility in Methanol 158 mg/mL
Solubility in Ethanol 54 mg/mL
Solubility in Acetone 27 mg/mL
Solubility in Glycerol 50 mg/mL
Solubility in Ether 8.8 mg/mL
Acidity (pKa) pKa1 = 4.2
pKa2 = 5.6
-57.9·10−6 cm3/mol
Flash point 206 °C (403 °F; 479 K)
sodium succinate
propionic acid

malonic acidbutyric acidmalic acidtartaric acidfumaric acidvaleric acidglutaric acid

Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their

standard state

(at 25 °C , 100 kPa).

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Infobox references

Succinic acid () is a dicarboxylic acid with the chemical formula (CH2)2(CO2H)2. The name derives from Latin succinum, meaning amber. In living organisms, succinic acid takes the form of an anion, succinate, which has multiple biological roles as a metabolic intermediate being converted into fumarate by the enzyme succinate dehydrogenase in complex 2 of the electron transport chain which is involved in making ATP, and as a signaling molecule reflecting the cellular metabolic state. Succinate is generated in mitochondria via the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA), an energy-yielding process shared by all organisms.:Section 17.1 Succinate can exit the mitochondrial matrix and function in the cytoplasm as well as the extracellular space, changing gene expression patterns, modulating epigenetic landscape or demonstrating hormone-like signaling. As such, succinate links cellular metabolism, especially ATP formation, to the regulation of cellular function. Dysregulation of succinate synthesis, and therefore ATP synthesis, happens in some genetic mitochondrial diseases, such as Leighs disease, and Melas disease, and degradation can lead to pathological conditions, such as malignant transformation, inflammation and tissue injury.

Physical properties

Succinic acid is a white, odorless solid with a highly acidic taste. In an aqueous solution, succinic acid readily ionizes to form its conjugate base, succinate (). As a diprotic acid, succinic acid undergoes two successive deprotonation reactions:

(CH2)2(CO2H)2 → (CH2)2(CO2H)(CO2)− + H+ (CH2)2(CO2H)(CO2)− → (CH2)2(CO2)22− + H+

The pKa of these processes are 4.3 and 5.6, respectively. Both anions are colorless and can be isolated as the salts, e.g., Na(CH2)2(CO2H)(CO2) and Na2(CH2)2(CO2)22−. In living organisms, primarily succinate, not succinic acid, is found.

As a radical group it is called a succinyl () group.

Like most simple mono- and dicarboxylic acids, it is not harmful but can be an irritant to skin and eyes.

Production and common reactions

Chemical reactions

Succinic acid can be oxidized to fumaric acid or be converted to diesters, such as diethylsuccinate (CH2CO2CH2CH3)2. This diethyl ester is a substrate in the Stobbe condensation. Dehydration of succinic acid gives succinic anhydride. Succinate can be used to derive 1,4-butanediol, maleic anhydride, succinimide, 2-pyrrolidinone and tetrahydrofuran.

Commercial production

Historically, succinic acid was obtained from amber by distillation and has thus been known as spirit of amber. Today, succinic acid is generated for human use synthetically or converted from biomass via fermentation. Common industrial routes of synthesis include partial hydrogenation of maleic acid, oxidation of 1,4-butanediol, and carbonylation of ethylene glycol. Succinate is also produced petrochemically from butane via maleic anhydride. Additionally, genetic engineering of microorganisms, such as Escherichia coli or Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has recently allowed for the high-yielding, commercial production from fermentation of glucose. Global production is estimated at 16,000 to 30,000 tons a year, with an annual growth rate of 10%.

Applications

In 2004, succinate was placed on the US Department of Energy’s list of top 12 platform chemicals from biomass.

Precursor to polymers, resins, and solvents

Succinic acid is a precursor to some polyesters and a component of some alkyd resins.1,4-Butanediol (BDO) can be synthesized using succinic as a precursor. The automotive and electronics industries heavily rely on BDO to produce connectors, insulators, wheel covers, gearshift knobs and reinforcing beams. Succinic acid also serves as the bases of certain biodegradable polymers, which are of interest in tissue engineering applications.

Food and dietary supplement

As a food additive and dietary supplement, succinic acid is generally recognized as safe by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Succinic acid is used primarily as an acidity regulator in the food and beverage industry. It is also available as a flavoring agent, contributing a somewhat sour and astringent component to umami taste. As an excipient in pharmaceutical products, it is also used to control acidity or as a counter ion. Drugs involving succinate include metoprolol succinate, sumatriptan succinate, Doxylamine succinate or solifenacin succinate.

Biosynthesis

Tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle

Succinate is a key intermediate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, a primary metabolic pathway used to produce chemical energy in the presence of O2. Succinate is generated from succinyl-CoA by the enzyme succinyl-CoA synthetase in a GTP/ATP-producing step::Section 17.1

Succinyl-CoA + NDP + Pi → Succinate + CoA + NTP

Catalyzed by the enzyme succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), succinate is subsequently oxidized to fumarate::Section 17.1

Succinate + FAD → Fumarate + FADH2

SDH also participates in the mitochondrial electron transport chain, where it is known as respiratory Complex 2. This enzyme complex is a 4 subunit membrane-bound lipoprotein which couples the oxidation of succinate to the reduction of ubiquinone via the intermediate electron carriers FAD and three 2Fe-2S clusters. Succinate thus serves as a direct electron donor to the electron transport chain, and itself is converted into fumarate.

Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to link to respective articles.

]

Reductive branch of the TCA cycle

Succinate can alternatively be formed by reverse activity of SDH. Under anaerobic conditions certain bacteria such as A. succinogenes, A. succiniciproducens and M. succiniciproducens, run the TCA cycle in reverse and convert glucose to succinate through the intermediates of oxaloacetate, malate and fumarate. This pathway is exploited in metabolic engineering to net generate succinate for human use. Additionally, succinic acid produced during the fermentation of sugar provides a combination of saltiness, bitterness and acidity to fermented alcohols.

Accumulation of fumarate can drive the reverse activity of SDH, thus enhancing succinate generation. Under pathological and physiological conditions, the malate-aspartate shuttle or the purine nucleotide shuttle can increase mitochondrial fumarate, which is then readily converted to succinate.

Glyoxylate cycle

Succinate is also a product of the glyoxylate cycle, which converts two two-carbon acetyl units into the four-carbon succinate. The glyoxylate cycle is utilized by many bacteria, plants and fungi and allows these organisms to subsist on acetate or acetyl CoA yielding compounds. The pathway avoids the decarboxylation steps of the TCA cycle via the enzyme isocitrate lyase which cleaves isocitrate into succinate and glyoxylate. Generated succinate is then available for either energy production or biosynthesis.:Section 17.4

GABA shunt

Succinate is the re-entry point for the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) shunt into the TCA cycle, a closed cycle which synthesizes and recycles GABA. The GABA shunt serves as an alternate route to convert alpha-ketoglutarate into succinate, bypassing the TCA cycle intermediate succinyl-CoA and instead producing the intermediate GABA. Transamination and subsequent decarboxylation of alpha-ketoglutarate leads to the formation of GABA. GABA is then metabolized by GABA transaminase to succinic semialdehyde. Finally, succinic semialdehyde is oxidized by succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) to form succinate, re-entering the TCA cycle and closing the loop. Enzymes required for the GABA shunt are expressed in neurons, glial cells, macrophages and pancreatic cells.

Biological roles of succinate. Inside the mitochondria, succinate serves as an intermediate in multiple metabolic pathways and contributes to the generation of ROS. Outside the mitochondria, succinate functions as both an intracellular and extracellular signaling molecule. OOA=oxaloacetate; a-KG=alpha ketoglutarate; GLUT= Glutamate; GABA = gamma-aminobutyric acid; SSA=Succinic semialdehyde ; PHD= prolyl hydroxylase; HIF-1a=hypoxia inducible factor 1a; TET= Ten-eleven Translocation Enzymes; JMJD3= Histone demethylase Jumonji D3

Cellular metabolism

Metabolic intermediate

Succinate is produced and concentrated in the mitochondria and its primary biological function is that of a metabolic intermediate.:Section 17.1 All metabolic pathways that are interlinked with the TCA cycle, including the metabolism of carbohydrates, amino acids, fatty acids, cholesterol, and heme, rely on the temporary formation of succinate. The intermediate is made available for biosynthetic processes through multiple pathways, including the reductive branch of the TCA cycle or the glyoxylate cycle, which are able to drive net production of succinate. In rodents, mitochondrial concentrations are approximately ~0.5 mM while plasma concentration are only 2–20 μM.

ROS production

The activity of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), which interconverts succinate into fumarate participates in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by directing electron flow in the electron transport chain. Under conditions of succinate accumulation, rapid oxidation of succinate by SDH can drive reverse electron transport (RET). If mitochondrial respiratory complex III is unable to accommodate excess electrons supplied by succinate oxidation, it forces electrons to flow backwards along the electron transport chain. RET at mitochondrial respiratory complex 1, the complex normally preceding SDH in the electron transport chain, leads to ROS production and creates a pro-oxidant microenvironment.

Additional biologic functions

In addition to its metabolic roles, succinate serves as an intracellular and extracellular signaling molecule. Extra-mitochondrial succinate alters the epigenetic landscape by inhibiting the family of 2-oxogluterate-dependent dioxygenases. Alternative, succinate can be released into the extracellular milieu and the blood stream where it is recognized by target receptors. In general, leakage from the mitochondria requires succinate overproduction or underconsumption and occurs due to reduced, reverse or completely absent activity of SDH or alternative changes in metabolic state. Mutations in SDH, hypoxia or energetic misbalance are all linked to an alteration of flux through the TCA cycle and succinate accumulation. Upon exiting the mitochondria, succinate serves as a signal of metabolic state, communicating to neighboring cells how metabolically active the originating cell population is. As such, succinate links TCA cycle dysfunction or metabolic changes to cell-cell communication and to oxidative stress-related responses.

Succinate transporters

Succinate requires specific transporters to move through both the mitochondrial and plasma membrane. Succinate exits the mitochondrial matrix and passes through the inner mitochondrial membrane via dicarboxylate transporters, primarily SLC25A10, a succinate-fumarate/malate transporter. In the second step of mitochondrial export, succinate readily crosses the outer mitochondrial membrane through porins, nonspecific protein channels that facilitate the diffusion of molecules less than 1.5 kDa. Transport across the plasma membrane is likely tissue specific. A key candidate transporter is INDY (I’m not dead yet), a sodium-independent anion exchanger, which moves both dicarboxylate and citrate into the bloodstream.

Amino acid sequence of GPR91. Succinate binds to GPR91, a 7-transmembrane G-protein coupled receptor, located on a variety of cell types. Red amino acids represent those involved in binding succinate. All other amino acids are colored according to their chemical properties (grey=nonpolar, cyan=negative charge, dark blue = positive charge, green=aromatic, dark purple=polar and noncharged, orange/light purple = special cases).

Extracellular succinate can act as a signaling molecule with hormone-like function, targeting a variety of tissues such as blood cells, adipose tissue, immune cells, the liver, the heart, the retina and primarily the kidney. The G-protein coupled receptor, GPR91 also known as SUCNR1, serves as the detector of extracellular succinate. Arg99, His103, Arg252, and Arg281 near the center of the receptor generate a positively charged binding site for succinate. The ligand specificity of GPR91 was rigorously tested using 800 pharmacologically active compounds and 200 carboxylic acid and succinate-like compounds, all of which demonstrated significantly lower binding affinity. Overall, the EC50 for succinate-GPR91 is in the 20–50 uM range. Depending on the cell type, GPR91 can interact with multiple G proteins, including Gs, Gi and Gq, and enabling a multitude of signaling outcomes.

Effect on adipocytes

In adipocytes, the succinate-activated GPR91 signaling cascade inhibits lipolysis.

Effect on the liver and retina

Succinate signaling often occurs in response to hypoxic conditions. In the liver, succinate serves as a paracrine signal, released by anoxic hepatocytes, and targets stellate cells via GPR91. This leads to stellate cell activation and fibrogenesis. Thus, succinate is thought to play a role in liver homeostasis. In the retina, succinate accumulates in retinal ganglion cells in response to ischemic conditions. Autocrine succinate signaling promotes retinal neovascularization, triggering the activation of angiogenic factors such as endothelial growth factor (VEGF).

Effect on the heart

Extracellular succinate regulates cardiomyocyte viability through GPR91 activation; long-term succinate exposure leads to pathological cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Stimulation of GPR91 triggers at least two signaling pathways in the heart: a MEK1/2 and ERK1/2 pathway that activates hypertrophic gene expression and a phospholipase C pathway which changes the pattern of Ca2+ uptake and distribution and triggers CaM-dependent hypertrophic gene activation.

Effect on immune cells

SUCNR1 is highly expressed on immature dendritic cells, where succinate binding stimulates chemotaxis. Furthermore, SUCNR1 synergizes with toll-like receptors to increase the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF alpha and interleukin-1beta. Succinate may enhance adaptive immunity by triggering the activity of antigen-presenting cells that, in turn, activate T-cells.

Effect on platelets

SUCNR1 is one of the highest expressed G protein-coupled receptors on human platelets, present at levels similar to P2Y12, though the role of succinate signaling in platelet aggregation is debated. Multiple studies have demonstrated succinate-induced aggregation, but the effect has high inter-individual variability.

Effect on the kidneys

Succinate serves as a modulator of blood pressure by stimulating renin release in macula densa and juxtaglomerular apparatus cells via GPR91. Therapies targeting succinate to reduce cardiovascular risk and hypertension are currently under investigation.

Intracellular signaling

Accumulated succinate inhibits dioxygenases, such as histone and DNA demethylases or prolyl hydroxylases, by competitive inhibition. Thus, succinate modifies the epigenic landscape and regulates gene expression.

Accumulation of either fumarate or succinate reduces the activity of 2-oxogluterate-dependent dioxygenases, including histone and DNA demethylases, prolyl hydroxylases and collagen prolyl-4-hydroxyalses, through competitive inhibition. 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases require an iron cofactor to catalyze hydroxylations, desaturations and ring closures. Simultaneous to substrate oxidation, they convert 2-oxglutarate, also known as alpha-ketoglutarate, into succinate and CO2. 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases bind substrates in a sequential, ordered manner. First, 2-oxoglutarate coordinates with an Fe(II) ion bound to a conserved 2-histidinyl–1-aspartyl/glutamyl triad of residues present in enzymatic center. Subsequently, the primary substrate enters the binding pocket and lastly dioxygen binds to the enzyme-substrate complex. Oxidative decarboxylation then generates a ferryl intermediate coordinated to succinate, which serves to oxidize the bound primary substrate. Succinate may interfere with the enzymatic process by attaching to the Fe(II) center first, prohibiting the binding of 2-oxoglutarate. Thus, via enzymatic inhibition, increased succinate load can lead to changes in transcription factor activity and genome-wide alterations in histone and DNA methylation.

Epigenetic effects

Succinate and fumarate inhibit the TET (ten-eleven translocation) family of 5-methylcytosine DNA modifying enzymes and the JmjC domain-containing histone lysine demethylase (KDM). Pathologically elevated levels of succinate lead to hypermethylation, epigenetic silencing and changes in neuroendocrine differentiation, potentially driving cancer formation.

Gene regulation

Succinate inhibition of prolyl hydroxylases (PHDs) stabilizes the transcription factor hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)1α. PHDs hydroxylate proline in parallel to oxidatively decarboxylating 2-oxyglutarate to succinate and CO2. In humans, three HIF prolyl 4-hydroxylases regulate the stability of HIFs. Hydroxylation of two prolyl residues in HIF1α facilitates ubiquitin ligation, thus marking it for proteolytic destruction by the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway. Since PDHs have an absolute requirement for molecular oxygen, this process is suppressed in hypoxia allowing HIF1α to escape destruction. High concentrations of succinate will mimic the hypoxia state by suppressing PHDs, therefore stabilizing HIF1α and inducing the transcription of HIF1-dependent genes even under normal oxygen conditions. HIF1 is known to induce transcription of more than 60 genes, including genes involved in vascularization and angiogenesis, energy metabolism, cell survival, and tumor invasion.

Role in human health

Inflammation

Metabolic signaling involving succinate can be involved in inflammation via stabilization of HIF1-alpha or GPR91 signaling in innate immune cells. Through these mechanisms, succinate accumulation has been shown to regulate production of inflammatory cytokines. For dendritic cells, succinate functions as a chemoattractant and increases their antigen-presenting function via receptor stimulated cytokine production. In inflammatory macrophages, succinate-induced stability of HIF1 results in increased transcription of HIF1-dependent genes, including the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β. Other inflammatory cytokines produced by activated macrophages such as tumor necrosis factor or interleukin 6 are not directly affected by succinate and HIF1. The mechanism by which succinate accumulates in immune cells is not fully understood. Activation of inflammatory macrophages through toll-like receptors induces a metabolic shift towards glycolysis. In spite of a general downregulation of the TCA cycle under these conditions, succinate concentration is increased. However, lipopolysaccharides involved in the activation of macrophages increase glutamine and GABA transporters. Succinate may thus be produced from enhanced glutamine metabolism via alpha-ketoglutarate or the GABA shunt.

Tumorigenesis

Succinate is one of three oncometabolites, metabolic intermediates whose accumulation causes metabolic and non-metabolic dysregulation implicated in tumorigenesis. Loss-of-function mutations in the genes encoding succinate dehydrogenase, frequently found in hereditary paraganglioma and pheochromocytoma, cause pathological increase in succinate. SDH mutations have also been identified in gastrointestinal stromal tumors, renal tumors, thyroid tumors, testicular seminomas and neuroblastomas. The oncogenic mechanism caused by mutated SHD is thought to relate to succinate’s ability to inhibit 2-oxogluterate-dependent dioxygenases. Inhibition of KDMs and TET hydroxylases results in epigenetic dysregulation and hypermethylation affecting genes involved in cell differentiation. Additionally, succinate-promoted activation of HIF-1α generates a pseudo-hypoxic state that can promote tumorneogensis by transcriptional activation of genes involved in proliferation, metabolism and angiogenesis. The other two oncometabolites, fumarate and 2-hydroxyglutarate have similar structures to succinate and function through parallel HIF-inducing oncogenic mechanisms.

Ischemia reperfusion injury

Succinate accumulation under hypoxic conditions has been implicated in the reperfusion injury through increased ROS production. During ischemia, fumarate is formed from purine nucleotide breakdown and partial reversal of the malate/aspartate shuttle. Fumarate overflow results in the production and accumulation of succinate through reverse activity of SDH. Upon reperfusion, succinate is rapidly oxidized leading to abrupt and extensive production of ROS. ROS then trigger the cellular apoptotic machinery or induce oxidative damage to proteins, membranes, organelles etc. In animal models, pharmacological inhibition of ischemic succinate accumulation ameliorated ischemia-reperfusion injury. As of 2016 the inhibition of succinate-mediated ROS production was under investigation as a therapeutic drug target.

See also

  • Oil of amber, procured by heating succinic acid
  • Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle
  • Metabolite

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  39. ^ a b Sciacovelli, Marco; Frezza, Christian (2017-03-06). “Oncometabolites: Unconventional triggers of oncogenic signalling cascades”. Free Radical Biology & Medicine. : 175–181. doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2016.04.025. ISSN 0891-5849. PMC 5145802 . PMID 27117029. 
  40. ^ King, A.; Selak, M. A.; Gottlieb, E. (2006-01-01). “Succinate dehydrogenase and fumarate hydratase: linking mitochondrial dysfunction and cancer”. Oncogene. (34): 4675–4682. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1209594. ISSN 0950-9232. 

External links

  • FDA
  • Succinic Acid
  • Calculator: Water and solute activities in aqueous succinic acid

en.wikipedia.org

Bad environment, mental work and fiznagruzki – all this affects the health and well-being. To maintain the proper functioning of the organs and cells are advised to take dietary Supplements, vitamins and other drugs, succinic acid among which occupies pride of place.

What is succinic acid

Is more to figure out what this substance is, and how useful succinic acid man. It is important to state that succinic acid is an all-natural substance that is extracted, processing of natural amber. Is a white crystals, which dissolve in water or alcohol. The taste is similar to citric acid.

In the human body it is present a priori as succinates – salts and anions, but may come with some foods (dairy products, cheeses, aged wines, etc.). Due to its uniqueness – it accumulates only where it helps with active physical exertion, intense mental work, of numerous diseases.

The properties of succinic acid

To understand the full range of useful properties can be studied in more detail, why the need for succinic acid. In the West, widely known coenzyme Q10. It is believed that it prolongs youth, starting the processes of rejuvenation and prevents the development of various diseases. The properties of succinic acid for the human body have a similar impact. It slows ageing, which aktiviziruyutsya over the years, provides oxygen to cells, increasing metabolism.

Since the substance has powerful antioxidant properties, it is able to neutralize free radicals, thereby countering the possibility of the emergence of cancer cells. The succinates proved its effectiveness in functional asthenic conditions. In addition, the substance according to the instructions capable of:

  • to normalize the function of the liver;
  • to provide antihypoxia action;
  • to lower blood sugar;
  • to stimulate the resorption of adhesions;
  • to improve the functioning of the brain;
  • to stabilize the heart rhythm;
  • to help in raising immunity, etc.

The use of substances able to stimulate the kidneys, normalizes liver function. This is a positive impact on the body because this method removes harmful substances. Forcing the right to decline heart, the substance promotes healthy blood flow, prevents the formation of oedema, supplies the brain with oxygen, which helps to prevent many age-related diseases. Effective in ischemic conditions and lesions of the blood vessels.

Contributing to the production of insulin, the drug is a great help in medicine for patients with diabetes. As the instruction, he is able to prevent allergic reactions, neutralize the alcohol in the blood, enhances the action of other medications. Proven beneficial properties of matter has allowed us to put the YAK in the list of products permitted for use in food industry.

Succinic acid for weight loss

Just amber acid for weight loss may not give instant results, but with an integrated approach it is able to affect weight reduction. Thanks to its properties, it enhances metabolic processes, facilitates removal of excess moisture from the body and raises vitality. Proper nutrition and exercise will only reinforce these properties, helping to lose weight. There are several options for explaining how to make succinic acid for weight loss. You can use tablets or aqueous solution.

To pop a pill every day, three times minutes 30 minutes meals adhering to any of the following programs:

  • two weeks – one week stay;
  • three days – one day of rest.

Solution:

  • Sutra on an empty stomach half an hour before meals.

Succinic acid in alcoholism

Established positive themselves succinic acid after alcohol: due to the fact that it removes harmful substances from the body, helps to normalize the work of liver and restore its protective functions. In addition, it helps to break down acetaldehyde, which helps relieve the hangover. Many may be interested in how to make succinic acid from a hangover. The answer is simple – it you can enjoy during the festival and in the morning.

The use of succinic acid for women

Struggling with inflammatory processes in the body succinic acid for women will help in diseases of the small pelvis. The manual indicates that it can be administered during pregnancy and lactation, because it brings benefits to the body and baby. Successfully used substance in cosmetics and production of cosmetics, which are effective in skin problems. Tablets can be added to masks for dry and thin hair. The succinates are used in the preparation of face masks that you can buy or make personally at home.

Succinic acid for children

If there are no contraindications, about which more will be said below, the doctors do not see anything wrong, to be appointed succinic acid children. It is important to consider the dosage and the drug due to its properties, can help the child to recover after illness, give strength, restore children’s immune system. The substance can be taken in its pure form, and adding in fruit drinks and compotes.

Succinic acid for men

Noted benefits of taking succinic acid for men. It has beneficial effects on reproductive function, increases sexual excitability. Will become an indispensable product for those who are engaged in heavy physical labor, training in the gym or engaged in active scientific and research activities, as saturates the body’s cells with oxygen, helping them to breathe.

Instructions for use of succinic acid

The standard scheme how to make succinic acid in the tablets described in the instructions for use of succinic acid , and is as follows: two tablets are taken twice a day during or after meals, drinking water or milk. As BAD struggling with drowsiness, the latter technique is recommended by not later than six o’clock in the evening. Here’s how to drink succinic acid in special cases according to the instructions:

anti-fatigue

1 tablet per day according to the scheme: 3 days – 1 day break

fatigue

5 tablets one time/day for three consecutive days

hangover, poisoning

10 tablets one-time

disease prevention

500 mg/day for 2 weeks

cardiovascular disease

0.5 tablets/day according to the scheme:

4 week – 2 week break

When purchasing the powder, it is important to know what dissolved it in a glass of water. Two doses a day is enough. The course lasts a month, then make a two-week break. Available as a YAK in the vials – it has the name Kogitum (active substance – acetylaminosiccine acid). The daily dose according to the instructions is 30 mg for adults, children up to 7 years appoint 1 amp, old – 2 capsules per day. The solution is to drink pure, although children can be diluted with water.

The composition of succinic acid

The main components in the composition of succinic acid is butadiona or ethane-dicarboxylic acid (also called active substance). In addition, the composition of medicines may include:

  • Aerosil;
  • calcium stearate;
  • potato starch;
  • sugar;
  • talc;
  • ascorbic acid.

Indications for use of succinic acid

From a medical point of view, Succinic acid – the statement confirms it is Bud, but this does not detract from its ability to affect the body from a positive point of view. Indications for the use of succinic acid, and the manual confirms it:

  • alcoholic intoxication;
  • sore throat;
  • atherosclerosis;
  • bronchial asthma;
  • varicose veins;
  • inflammation of the kidneys;
  • hypoxia;
  • flu;
  • cholelithiasis;
  • insulin-dependent diabetes;
  • coronary heart disease;
  • sleep disorders;
  • nervous strain;
  • SARS;
  • ORZ;
  • osteochondrosis;
  • cold
  • physical fatigue;
  • chemical poisoning;
  • chronic bronchitis;
  • cirrhosis;
  • sclerosis, etc.

Side effects of succinic acid

Pain in the stomach, high blood pressure are the main side effects of succinic acid. Judging by the reviews, they appear rarely, but are the place to be. A means overdose can cause severe heartburn and spasm, even in people completely healthy. For this reason, before using the product, as well as any madridsta should consult the doctor for treatment. Do not exceed the permissible standards, it is necessary to comply fully with recommendations.

Contraindications to the use of succinic acid

Though the drug is fairly harmless, but there are contraindications of succinic acid, which according to the manual:

  • glaucoma;
  • high blood pressure;
  • urolithiasis;
  • acute gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer.

The price of succinic acid

The drug can be buy in the drugstore for a small price. The cost will depend on method of production and the manufacturer. Below is given an indicative price of drugs:

Release form

Dosage

Price, RUR

Pills

50 mg 10 PCs.

12-29

100 mg 10 PCs.

9-50

100 mg 20 PCs.

30-40

100 mg 100 EA.

12-20

Pills glucose

50 mg 10 PCs.

15-18

Powder

100 g

117-195

Kogitum

250 mg 10 vials

3000-6220

Video: the use of succinic acid

Reviews

Oksana, 38 years old

Every fall I always get sick. Buy expensive immunomodulatory agent and vitamins, but the effect was zero. This year I decided to take a chance and drink a course of succinic acid, as for reviews of girlfriends it has a great result. What can I say: this fall I not only was sick, but noticed the improvement of the body.

Natalia, 27 years

My acquaintance with the drug occurred in the years of student life where I simultaneously studied and worked. Constant lack of sleep and chronic fatigue began to affect the health. My mom told me to drink a course to raise the tone. I read the description on the Internet and bought it. Since then I always use the drug and my health has improved!

Nina, 58 years

In itself I the person very active, but the years are felt. For this reason, try eating quality and more fresh air. Recently discovered succinic acid – systematically use it as BAD. Heart rate stabilized, the memory became clearer, and my skin had the elasticity. Now always recommend her to all my friends.

tip10.info

Succinic acid is a natural compound thatis available in the body of each person and can be extracted industrially from amber. Pharmaceutical companies produce tablets based on this substance, the use of which is becoming more popular. We will find out why, how to use them, and how useful this is.

Amber acid – health benefits and harm

It is established that the substance under considerationis synthesized in our body and is an integral part of many processes in tissues. Under normal conditions, this organic acid is produced independently in the proper amount. In addition, it comes with food: the highest content is noted in sour-milk products, sunflower seeds, gooseberries, grapes, seafood, etc. The peculiarity of this compound is that the organism can not accumulate it for future use, but consumes it for current processes.

Amber acid, the benefit and harm of whichcontinue to be studied, often compared with coenzyme Q10 – a substance known for its ability to rejuvenate, increase vitality and body resistance. According to the researchers, additional intake of amber extracted from amber helps to cope with many pathologies more easily and overcome various negative effects. At the same time, as in cases with other drugs, there is also a “reverse side of the coin” – sometimes the substance is capable of harm.

Why is succinic acid useful?

Amber organic acid participates inmetabolic reactions, it is necessary to provide cellular respiration, ion transport, protein synthesis, intracellular energy production. Its function is to neutralize the free radicals formed in the tissues (aggressive agents acting as aging factors) and increase the rate of decomposition of toxic substances that come from outside or are produced inside the body.

For a healthy person who leads a measuredlifestyle, in most cases, enough of the amount of succinic acid that is available in the body, to maintain all necessary processes. If you increase the load on any internal system associated with stress, increased physical activity, mental fatigue, diseases, etc., support for its work is provided to a greater extent by succinic acid. In such cases, if succinic acid is additionally taken, its usefulness is related to the following effects:

  • Activation of metabolic processes;
  • increased resistance to infectious pathogens;
  • inhibition of inflammatory processes, including allergic reactions;
  • improvement of peripheral circulation;
  • increase in digestibility by oxygen tissues;
  • Improving the supply of nutrients and oxygen to the brain;
  • stimulation of insulin production;
  • neutralization of toxic substances;
  • reducing the risk of malignant tumors and inhibiting their growth, etc.

Succinic acid – harm

Given the foregoing, there may bethe impression that the substance in question is a panacea capable of solving all health problems and preventing the development of many ailments. This is not quite true, and besides, for a healthy person its use will be meaningless: succinic acid does not accumulate and is used by the body only as needed. To some people, succinic acid, whose properties, like other acids, are associated with irritating effects on the mucous membranes, can be harmful.

Uncontrolled internal application of acid,obtained from amber, without the appointment of a doctor and without taking into account contraindications, can bring negative consequences. It is worth noting that some experts in the field of medicine consider it exaggerated its positive effect on a person, explaining this by the placebo effect. In fact, amber acid preparations do not have sufficient evidence base, therefore they are referred to as dietary supplements, not medicines.

Succinic acid – indications for use

Internal reception of tablets with succinic acid is justified and recommended in such cases:

  • Frequent colds;
  • Allergies;
  • intensive sports training;
  • Chronic fatigue syndrome;
  • Depressive conditions;
  • Overweight;
  • intoxication of the body;
  • heart failure;
  • impaired brain activity;
  • Atherosclerosis of blood vessels;
  • non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus;
  • tumor processes.

In addition, amber acid readings are for external use – in the field of cosmetology. So, it is applied to the skin of the face with the aim:

  • purification of pores;
  • getting rid of acne;
  • Rejuvenation;
  • increase the elasticity of tissues;
  • lightening of the skin;
  • removal of puffiness.

How correctly to take succinic acid?

Depending on the existing health problems,for the solution of which succinic acid is recommended, its application may be different. A general scheme has been developed, which is recommended, mainly, with weakening of immunity, overwork, increased psychoemotional stresses. In such cases succinic acid in the form of tablets is taken by 1 unit (0.5 g) three times a day for a month. The product should be consumed during or after a meal with a sufficient amount of liquid.

Amber acid for weight loss

Those who have problems with being overweight,I wonder how to take succinic acid for weight loss. This tool effectively contributes to the removal of fat deposits, provided that the diet and sufficient physical activity due to the acceleration of metabolic processes. There are several known ways to take succinic acid with increased body weight. The most effective is a daily three-time intake of 3 tablets for two weeks, followed by a weekly break and a repetition of the course.

Amber acid with a hangover

A large amount of alcohol in the eveninginevitably causes a morning hangover, associated with intoxication of the body due to the formation of products of the decomposition of ethanol in the liver. To quickly overcome unpleasant symptoms, you should know how to take succinic acid in tablets in such a case. It is recommended after awakening to use 5-6 tablets of the drug, taking in the amount of 1 pc. every hour and washing down with a lot of water.

Succinic acid for the face

Succinic acid in cosmetology is appliedfor a long time, supplementing the compositions of masks, serums, tonics, creams, and peeling agents. Excellent succinic acid for the skin, prone to inflammation, lost tonus, which has wrinkles. To enrich your own make-up cosmetics with this useful compound, a succinic acid crushed into powder, the dosage of which is 1 g, is added to 100 ml of the agent. The resulting mixture is used in a conventional manner.

Mask with succinic acid cleansing – recipe

Ingredients:

  • succinic acid – 2 tablets;
  • water – 1 teaspoonful. a spoon.

Preparation and use:

  1. Crush the drug into powder.
  2. Dilute with water to a gruel-like condition.
  3. Apply to the skin.
  4. Wash off after 15 minutes.

Nourishing mask – recipe

Ingredients:

  • succinic acid – 2 tablets;
  • Olive oil – 1 teaspoonful. a spoon.

Preparation and use:

  1. Rastolchennye tablets mixed with oil.
  2. Apply to face.
  3. Wash off after 15 minutes.

Amber acid for hair

Preparations of succinic acid for oral administrationcontribute to the improvement of the condition of the hair, accelerate the growth of hair. Supplement the reception of tablets (according to the general scheme) can be an external application for rinsing hair after washing with shampoo and applying balm. For this, half a liter of warm boiled water requires dissolving 3-4 tablets, previously shredded.

Amber acid in sports

It is often used succinic acid inbodybuilding for rapid muscle recovery after intense training, extreme stress. The drug contributes to the improvement of the heart, prevents apathy and exhaustion. To maintain the regulatory mechanisms of the body should take a means of coursework – 5 tablets per day for a month, taking breaks for a couple of days every 5 days.

Amber acid – side effects

Succinic acid (tablets) in case of exceeding the dosage and ignoring the restrictions for internal administration can cause such negative consequences:

  • Pain in the stomach;
  • irritation, erosion, bleeding of the mucosa of the digestive tract;
  • hypersecretion of gastric juice;
  • Increased blood pressure;
  • Disruption of the nervous system;
  • Allergic reactions.

Succinic acid – contraindications

Tablets of succinic acid, the use of which must necessarily be agreed with the doctor, have such contraindications:

  • the presence of stones in the kidneys, bladder;
  • Increased acidity of gastric juice;
  • ulcers, erosion of the walls of the digestive tract;
  • High blood pressure;
  • glaucoma;
  • Angina pectoris;
  • Individual intolerance.

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Pharmacodynamics

Although the chemical structure of exogenous succinic acid is similar to that which is a metabolite of the intracellular cycle of tricarboxylic acids, in its pure form it is rarely included in the formulation. Even in succinic acid tablets, according to the instructions, the pharmacologically active component is acetylamino succinic acid. Chelation compounds – salts and chemically analogous succinate esters – are used to increase the intestinal absorption of drugs with succinic acid.

Thus, the pharmacodynamics of the regulatory effects on the metabolism of drugs such as Mexipridol is due to succinate 2-ethyl-6-methyl-3-hydroxypyridine (ethylmethylhydroxypyridine succinate), which is a succinic acid derivative.

Producers argue that drugs containing this substance regulate not only the processes of oxidation in cells and increase the level of adenosine triphosphate, but also normalize the work of the vessels of the brain, the heart muscle (primarily in hypoxia), the gastrointestinal tract, endocrine glands etc. However, the biochemical process of the whole range of beneficial effects that drugs with succinic acid exert in the instructions is most often not explained (for example, how they reduce cholesterol in the blood or relieve vegetovascular symptoms and increase immunity); at best, the mechanism of the tricarboxylic acid cycle is described.

Mexidol is the succinate of emoxipin, and Limontar is succinic acid (in each 200 mg tablet) and citric acid monohydrate (50 g), whose main task is not only to improve metabolism, but also to increase the production of gastric juice.

The pharmacodynamics of the antioxidant vitamin Citoflavin is described in more detail. In addition to succinic acid, vitamin B2 (riboflavin) is included, and the precursors of adenosine triphosphate are riboxin (inosine) and vitamin PP (niacin). That is, the action of the drug is provided by all the ingredients in the complex.

In the Reamberin solution used to remove toxic substances from the body, the active substance – N-methylammonium sodium succinate, which helps stabilize cell membranes, slows the oxidation of fatty acids and activates the cleavage of glucose to compensate for energy consumption under hypoxic conditions.

The pharmacodynamics of Gelofusin, a colloidal solution of succinylated medical gelatin, is based on an increase in the osmotic pressure, which results in the volume of fluid in the vessels increasing after the introduction of this drug into the vein with significant blood loss, providing the work of the heart.

Hyalual Arto – a preparation of hyaluronic acid with succinic acid – is used for viscosupplementation – introduction into the joint bag for the replacement of synovial fluid, partially or completely lost with deforming arthrosis of various joints. Amber acid activates the metabolism in bone and cartilage tissues and improves the mobility of damaged joints.

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