Exit from a 7-day fast on Nikolaev

My menu for 7 days

On February 1st, I arrived at the True North Health Center in Santa Rosa, California, and embarked on a 7-day water fast. This is my story of what happened.

Why fasting?

I’m not new to fasting. I’ve done a few short fasts (2-4 days), many one-day fasts, and one 23-day water fast. Two years ago, I also visited True North for a 5-day water fast.

Over the past few months, I’ve even been fasting one day a week for 36 hours. It might sound like I’m addicted to fasting. But in fact, if you exclude the one-day fasts, I’ve only fasted a few times in my life.

Most people who try a long water fast do so for therapeutic reasons. Water fasting is extremely useful in assisting the body in healing hypertension, auto-immune diseases, acute illness, and many types of chronic health problems, especially if they are caused by the Western diet. Fasting could also be a powerful tool to prevent cancer, boost the immune system, and possibly even slow down the aging process.

When I fasted for 23 days on water, I was sold on the benefits of fasting and thought of it as a potentially “miracle” therapy. I was 28 years old at the time, and I thought that fasting might heal my nearsightedness, and the acne I tend to have on my back since my teens. It did none of that. However, I discovered that fasting was a powerful spiritual tool.

Although my 23-day fast was very challenging, I came out of it with a new sense of direction for my life — a newfound power and energy that lasted me for several years and propelled my business and my life in a new direction.

The reason I sometimes go on a water fast for more than a day is because I believe in its therapeutic, preventative and spiritual benefits. It’s worked for me in the past, and that’s why it’s part of my life.

I decided to go on a 7-day water fast because I’m going to turn 40 next month. I figured it would be a great way to create a sense of ‘fresh” energy in my life and also enjoy some of the physical benefits of fasting.

Before the Fast

I prepared myself for the fast by eating a very clean diet throughout the month of January. Not only did I eat my usual plant-based diet, but I also made sure to avoid eating out and not eating a single drop of oil. I also avoided nuts, seeds, and avocados as an experiment.

In the two days leading to the fast, I ate only fruits and vegetables.

The only thing I could not give up was caffeine. You see, I was still drinking green tea every day and coffee once or twice a week. This caffeine addiction is very hard to break for me. I knew I had to give it up for the fast, to avoid the caffeine-withdrawal headaches. But I didn’t manage to do so. The best I could do was to switch to green tea exclusively the week before the fast, and reduce somewhat the quantities that I drink.

I arrived at True North on February 1st and got settled in my room. That night, I had a big migraine headache from the caffeine withdrawals (and all the traveling from Montreal). At that moment, I wished I had given up caffeine before the fast!

The next day I met with Dr. Klaper, one of the great doctors working at True North. He did my initial consultation and declared me “an expert on fasting” and wasn’t too worried about my fast. Blood tests would be done in a day or two to go along with my consultation.

The next day, my water fast started. Here’s what happened…

My Fasting Diary

Note: I also recorded daily videos during my fast that I posted on my Facebook page.

Day 1

Day one was no big deal. Fasting an entire day and going to bed on an empty stomach? No problems, I’ve been doing that once a week for the past three months. But it’s only “easy” when you get to eat the next day.

Weight: 163.8

Day 2

Hunger games. Though determined not to spend any time thinking or thinking about food during this fast (after all, I’ll be able to eat all the food I want after the fast), I end up being hungry all day and images and thoughts of food pop up all the time. I go to bed at 7 p.m. and get up at 7 a.m. and sleep maybe 9-10 hours. In my dreams, I’m sharing a giant granola bowl with my mom and we dice a huge mango in it, which surprisingly has a white flesh.

Weight: 162

Day 3

I wake up feeling great and end up having a long chat with my roommate James, who’s already several days into his fast. I feel positive and as energetic as someone can feel during a fast. The only issue is a mild, low-grade headache that probably is a remnant of my green tea habit I just gave up before coming to True North.

Weight: 159

Day 4

The morning starts out a little rough with low energy but gets better as the day progresses. I end up going for a nice walk in the afternoon, despite the center’s warning for fasters not to leave the property. I feel like a kid skipping class. I thought I would get some writing done during the fast, but I’m not. Concentration is difficult when the body is running on ketones instead of glucose. One faster told me “I couldn’t fast without Netflix.” I find the same. I end up watching an entire season of “Better Call Saul” in 2-3 days. Overall, an easy day. Hunger is gone!

Weight: 157

Day 5

I’m entering a new stage of the fast. I’m deep into ketosis now. I’m still sleeping like crazy, unlike other fasters! Again, spent 12 hours in bed last night. In the first few days of the fast, I drank because I had to. Now, I’m thirsty like crazy and end up drinking twice the amount that I usually drink. My pulse is higher. My blood pressure is higher. I can feel some acidity in my stomach.

Weight: 154.4

Day 6

I’m in deep detox mode! I feel like my body is doing a deep cleansing. I’m much more tired today, and the roof of my upper throat is inflamed.

Great doctors and interns at True North visit you twice a day. Dr. Roberts — a real gentleman — discussed with me that during a fast, many health markers go up (cholesterol levels, pulse, blood pressure), as the body does its “thing,” and then go down.

The mystery of the sore mouth/throat? Dr. Klaper explains to me that during a fast, saliva chemistry changes, and different, not-so-friendly bacteria start dominating. This change can occur in as little as two days, and changes as the fast goes on. This is a common symptom that will clear out after the fast.

Weight: 152.6

Day 7

I had officially a horrible night last night, making officially day six the worst day of the fast. I couldn’t sleep because all the aches and pains I ever felt in my life (it seems) came back to haunt me with a vengeance! For example, tooth pain where I had repairs done, leg pain where I had an accident 15 years ago, upper back, lower back, you name it. Doctor told me that old injuries and pains often come back during a fast. Looking forward to breaking the fast and counting the hours.

Weight: 151

Day 1 of breaking the fast

Day of juices only! My first watermelon-celery juice hits the spot and tastes better than any juice I remember having since my last fast. I’m allowed four juices today, every 3 hours. Still, I’m not feeling like myself still! However, I know better. You have to be patient…

Weight: 149

Day 2 of breaking the fast

Today on the menu: raw foods and some steamed vegetables. My morning fruit meal does the job. Fruit tastes amazing, of course, but I also feel the energy coming back soon after eating it! I make sure to eat fruit before every other meal, along with the salads and greens, which don’t taste any better than they normally do without dressing.

Weight: 151

Day 3 of breaking the fast

The inflamed throat that was bothering me in the last part of the fast is starting to heal quickly. My body chemistry is changing back to those friendly carbohydrates! Yay! Don’t let anyone tell you that ketosis is the body’s natural state.

Today on the menu: same as yesterday, but add cooked potatoes and other mild starches.

Now, I’m almost feeling like myself! But a bubblier version of myself! My physical energy is not back 100%, but I’m in a state of deep happiness. Last night, I watched “Crocodile Dundee” for the first time since I watched it as a kid and ended up crying in the cheesy finale.

Weight: 153

Thoughts About the Fast

Fasting is a process of preservation, rejuvenation, and revival. It’s part breaking down and building back up. The revival phase feels particularly good regarding mood and spiritual benefits.

The first 4-5 days of my fast were particularly easy, and the last few days were very challenging, because of the aches and pains I was feeling. Was it worth it?

It’s been now almost seven days since I broke the fast, and I can already report a few benefits

Benefits from the fast

The “High” — First, you can’t beat the “post-fast” high. For 4-5 fast after the fast, I was walking around in a state of elevated mood and heightened mental and spiritual awareness. Although my body was still “recovering” from the fast, I was feeling better and better every day.

Mood and energy — The mood enhancement seems to be lasting beyond the first few days after breaking the fast. I noticed that even when I get less sleep, I seem to function better during the day with higher levels of mental and physical energy.

Improved digestion – My digestion is noticeably better since I broke the fast — which surprised me. Every meal has digested perfectly, and elimination is perfect. I was doing well in those areas before, but I’ve noticed that it’s even better now.

I’m Off Caffeine! I can’t believe that I managed to give up caffeine completely. I tried to phase it off at home, but couldn’t. Since I broke the fast, I’ve had no desire for caffeine at all.

Mobility & Pain — I told you about the lower back issues I experienced during the fast, as well as the body aches and pains. All of that disappeared after the fast! But even better, my body feels even more mobile now and feels better all around.

Improved Taste Buds — You might have heard that natural foods taste better after a fast. My experience was a little different. Fruit tasted amazing after the fast, but vegetables tasted like they normally do. However, what has truly changed for me is my interest in salt is noticeably down. I just don’t want any! I’m turned off by any food that contains salt or too many strong seasonings (except natural spices). Before the fast, I was still using salt and seasonings (like salsa) that contained it, but now I’m determined to eliminate them or cut back significantly, and my taste buds are leading me in that direction!

Fast Loss — Although I was at a good weight before the fast (between 163-166 pounds), I probably lost 2 pounds of fat during the fast. I do enjoy my slimmer, trimmer body!

There are probably other benefits of the fast that I can’t pinpoint because they are happening on a much deeper, physiological level. All I know is that it was a worthwhile experience, in spite of the level of difficulty in doing a fast longer than 3-4 days.

FAQs

Here are a few questions I received about water fasting. If you have more, please write them in the comment section.

How much water to drink?

It’s recommended to drink 2-3 quarts or liters of water a day.

Have you ever done a juice fast? And if so what are the differences for you between a juice fast and water fast?

Yes, I’ve done many juice fasts, although none longer than five days. When doing a juice fast, I never felt any of the benefits I have felt with water fasting, except for the higher energy during and after the juice fast. Even that was short lived.

A juice fast is not a true fast. It’s a 600-1500 calories a day liquid diet. It can lead to some benefits, but in general, I don’t recommend it for more than a day. You’d be better off eating a whole, high-raw, low-fat, oil-free vegan diet instead.

Frederic Patenaude has been an important influence in the raw food and natural health movement since he started writing and publishing in 1998, first by being the editor of Just Eat an Apple magazine. He is the author of over 20 books, including The Raw Secrets, the Sunfood Cuisine and Raw Food Controversies. Since 2013 he’s been the Editor-in-Chief of Renegade Health.

Frederic loves to relentlessly debunk nutritional myths. He advocates a low-fat, plant-based diet and has had over 10 years of experience with raw vegan diets. He lives in Montreal, Canada.

renegadehealth.com

Introduction

During a visit at the local library I stumbled upon a book on fasting (written in Romanian). I do most of my reading on my tablet, for convenience. Trying to locate the book on Amazon Kindle returned an empty query. To my surprise, the book was not available/translated to English. It was only available in French. So, I bought the book – the physical copy.

I’m not sorry about the investment I made. Many concepts and ideas from this book are also detailed in my book Periodic Fasting. This is great because when some of my fellow Romanians will ask me to translate my book, I could simply guide them to book of Lestrade, which is already available in Romanian.

Furthermore, Thierry Lestrade obtained first-person access to research and experiments conducted by Russian scientists and doctors with regards to therapeutic fasting. Much of this research will be lost in the archives of Russian institutes as they have not (and most likely will not) been translated into other languages, unless we can do something about it.

In this entry I will describe the five stages of prolonged water fasting, as it has been widely used in the practice of Dr. Yuri Nikolayev, the Director of the Fasting Clinic of The Moscow Institute of Psychiatry for many years.

He claimed to have successfully treated more than 7,000 patients (as of 1972) suffering from neuro-psychiatric conditions by using therapeutic fasting. The average duration of a fast would be 30 days. He probably oversaw the experience of more than 10,000 patients because in 1972 he was only at the heights of his career.

Dr. Yuri Nikolayev (1905 – 1998) was first exposed to the practice of fasting in his early childhood. Whenever he or his brother Lev would get sick, their mother treated them with 2-3 days of fasting. His father, Serghei Nikolayev, was a polyglot. He wrote, edited, and translated to and from several languages. In 1913 he got his hands on Upton Sinclair’s book The Fasting Cure. There was a frequent exchange of letters between Serghei and the American author.

Long story short, these letters together with Sinclair’s book would have a profound influence on young Yuri’s personal experience with fasting as well as the implementation of therapeutic fasting in his medical practice.

The Five Stages of Fasting – Dr. Yuri Nikolayev

I will start with an article from Los Angeles Times, published Apr. 3, 1972. Written by Murray Seeger, the article was titled Soviet Cure-All: Eat Nothing for 30 Days. You can read it in its entirety here (it’s paid access).

MOSCOW—Vladimir Leshkovtsev had the flu and was sore all over. The doctors he saw told him he had infectious metabolic polyarthritis. The doctors treated Vladimir for six weeks but he felt no better. He decided to be his own doctor and to follow a radical course of treatment he had only heard about.

Hearing about the successful stories of therapeutic fasting that Dr. Nikolayev used with his patients, Vladimir decided to give it a try. He ate nothing, but drank plenty of water, for 45 days. He was relieved of his arthritis. Bonus: he lost 44 pounds and has not seen a doctor for the last 10 years since his fast ended.

“Leshkovtsev was in great danger of becoming an invalid,” Dr. Yuri Nikolayev of the Moscow Research Institute of Psychiatry observed. “The experiment conducted by him is one of the most successful cases of healing.”

For maintenance, Vladimir would continue fasting 8-10 days every year.

Other soviet doctors reported to have treated various pathologic conditions with fasting, ranging from: metabolic disorders, gallstones, hypertension, asthma, tumors, hypochondria (!) and several others. These are anecdotal claims. We cannot know their validity.

Dr. Nikolayev cautioned that the hunger treatment should be administered only under carefully controlled conditions. The patient and his relatives must approve the procedure and the patient is thoroughly examined before the treatment starts.

Each fast supervised by Dr. Nikolayev usually undergoes through five major stages…

  1. Food Deprivation – Eating Cessation – The First 2-3 Days

During this first initial stage, the patient is being given a solution of MgSO4 (magnesium sulfate, otherwise known as Epsom salt) to trigger complete bowel discharge. It does not specify how much of it, but from what I’ve seen on the internets, folks dilute 1 tbsp into a glass of water to obtain the desired laxative-like effects. The bitter after-taste is usually masked with a sip of juice. For this purpose, I’d go for lemon water.

In the initial phase, the patient is at risk of being disturbed by any reference to food, whether it’s visual, olfactory, or even a mere discussion about food. Any perception of food triggers salivary effects, sometimes even stomach cramps. Sleep is reduced and superficial, patients are irritable and may exert exacerbation of their symptoms. Weight loss is between 800 grams to 1 kg per day, blood pressure remains stable, while the cardiac rhythm may be easily intensified and irregular.

This initial increased weight loss may be due to glycogen depletion and water loss.

  1. Acidosis Phase

Between the third and fifth days of fasting, food stops causing any stimulation to the patient. There are occasional headaches, sensations of dizziness – especially with the sudden change of body position (i.e. waking up or going from sitting to standing) -, nausea, and a generalized feeling of weakness. I assume this happens as the body is learning to rely on its on adipose tissue as the primary source of fuel.

The tongue is usually coated with a white thin layer. Blood sugar may decrease to 65% of its initial level. The feeling of nausea is due to the increased blood acidity. In reality, as the body adapts to the lack of food intake it starts burning its own fat, and the incomplete oxidation may result in products that increase acidity.

I suspect this is the case for folks entering a fast from a higher carbohydrate diet background, a situation in which the body is not accustomed to predominantly using fat – but glucose – for energy.

Not surprising, these Russian doctors stress on increasing water intake, as well as on exercising !! three hours a day. Say what?! This would be considered recklessness compared to your conventional ‘rest, stay calm and peaceful’ fasting advice.

Their rationale for such an active routine is that it helps the body to breathe, ventilate, and sweat, all of which helps it activate organs engaged in eliminating toxins from the body (skin, kidneys, bowels, liver, etc). They also used daily enemas for this purpose.

  1. Compensation and Balance

During the fourth and seventh day, the body suddenly regains balance and the overall status of the patient is radically altered. With the feeling of weakness gone, the patient feels strong and motivated, his mood is improved. After the tenth day, weight loss stabilizes at 200g/day, the white tongue coating clears and the tongue regains its pinkish color. Patients who are catatonic experience a decrease of this state and their negative feelings begin to disappear. For those with auditory hallucinations, the inner voices tend to lose intensity.

I’d like to emphasize that this simplistic picture is characteristic of that moment in time, the 60s and the 70s. Every human being is unique. While there may be many general aspects shared between us and while we are 99% identical from a genetic standpoint, the 1% is what makes us different. This difference can and will most likely results in different responses to therapeutic fasting.

So, I’d suggest you take these reports with the adequate grain of salt that they deserve.

  1. Breaking the Fast – Reinitiating Eating

After a few more days, the patient passes the crises and gains a feeling of euphoria. The patient’s symptoms begin to disappear and he feels very good, until the stored energy source is consumed. This occurs after about 30 days, the doctor said. By that time, the patient’s tongue is clean, his skin color is a healthy pink, bad breath disappears and he develops a “wolf’s appetite.”

I think that the duration of a fast depends on the amount of bodyfat the patient has. We know from medical literature of fasts extending to 382 days. The ‘rule’ is that the fast should be ended, when bodyfat becomes depleted (usually around 3%). This coincides with the wolf appetite mentioned by the doctor.

Hunger is the least of problems during prolonged water fasting. It goes away after glycogen is depleted and your body starts to efficiently burn fat. Hunger, the real one, comes back when your bodyfat is very low and energy cannot be efficiently drawn from fat; this is when muscle catabolism starts increasing. This is the point of no return – the point where the prolongation of fasting turns from safe to life-threatening.

However, the body has its own mechanisms to prevent this to occur. This is when NPY (neuropeptide Y) secretion increases significantly, allowing the subject to develop real ravenous hunger. And as I’ve said it so many times, folks complain about starvation when they have not eaten for a couple of hours. That’s not real hunger. The real one happens when bodyfat is extremely low.

Now, let’s see how Dr. Nikolayev recommends reinitiating alimentation:

Food is reintroduced gradually. First, he is given diluted fruit juices, then whole juices and grated fruit mixed with yogurt. These are followed by cooked vegetables and boiled cereals. Near the 40th day, normal eating is resumed. The doctor said the hunger treatment gives the entire nervous system and the brain a rest. The body is cleaned of poisons and the tissues and glands renovated.

This is the general approach to refeeding. It’s the strategy that has been followed by many clinics of therapeutic fasting. However, I’d assume that to optimize nutrient intake, it may be better to replace fruit juices with vegetable juices. Vegetables are more nutritious than fruits. Further on, I’d focus on the consumption of cooked vegetables and yoghurt. I wouldn’t consume cereals. Water intake should be emphasized as well.

  1. Normal Alimentation

The fourth to the sixth day of realimentation (after breaking the fast) is when the appetite of the patient may be significantly increased. This is when, at his request, he may be provided with more fruits, bread, and plenty of vegetables. The patient may start consuming meat after the 7th day – however, this should be avoided as much as possible…

If the fasting cure was successful, the pathologic disorders of the patient have gone. Their blood pressure and the glucose levels stabilize at their initial values. The greedy appetite and the increased mood usually last for 2-3 weeks after which they resume to normal.

To note that Dr. Nikolayev was a vegetarian; hence his recommendations centered on low meat consumption.

Concluding Thoughts

From these reports we also find out of patients with poor response to therapeutic fasting. Once again, we are all different. What works for me may not work for you. Complications may appear predominantly during the acidosis phase. Complications such as nausea and dizziness may be counteracted by drinking alkaline water (rich in bicarbonate). If nausea persists for more than 3 days, fasting should be interrupted.

Complications may also appear during the realimentation phase. They are mostly due to excessive food intake. We know of historical therapeutic fasting reports (found in the medical literature) when patients died of complications in the realimentation phase (see more here).

There are cases when cycles of fasting may have to be implemented – such as with severe pathologic conditions. A second cure, as per Dr. Nikolayev, may be even more efficient and it may require fewer days of fasting because the body is now familiar with this intervention. He suggests a window of at least 6 months between these cures.

In conclusion, I have to remind you one more time to please take these reports as pragmatically as possible and please understand that they reflect the reality and the level of knowledge of the times they have been written.

While therapeutic fasting may be a very powerful tool in the repertoire for optimizing wellbeing, it should be implemented with the most caution possible and under medical supervision. Which brings me to my:

Disclaimer: None of the content on this website should be taken as medical advice. It should not be used as a substitute for professional medical care or treatment. I am not a doctor and I don’t play one on the Internet either; if you decide to implement any strategy, protocol, or therapy discussed on the website, you do it on your own risk and you should do it under the supervision of a qualified physician/authority.

Thoughts and comments below.

Resources:

  1. Lestrade, T. (2015). Postul Negru. Ed. Philobia. (Romanian Version).

1.1. Lestrade, T. (2015). Le Jeune, Une Novelle Therapie. (French Version).

  1. Cott, A. (1974). Controlled fasting treatment for schizophrenia. Journal of Orthomolecular Psychiatry, 3(4.1974).
  1. Seeger, M. (1972). Soviet Cure-All: Eat Nothing for 30 Days. Retrieved from LA Times.

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Types of fasting

Proponents claim any kind of fasting thattheir system is not designed for any there banal weight loss, and for the recovery and purification of the whole body. Weight loss – a side effect of this painful but enlightening event.

Starvation. Stages of fasting

First, the body a little surprised – why isnobody feeds. In the mode of surprise he could survive for 12 to 24 hours – so it lacks a reserve stock of carbohydrates. Then it begins to part with nutrient reserves.

In the next few days, it becomes starvingirritable, sensitive to food odors may be difficult to sleep. Some serve as consolation is that the weight of these days may be reduced almost two kilograms a day. Alas, it comes not fat and glycogen and excess moisture, cleaned intestines. Fat is easy to fade does not want to. To part with him will have to go a few more rounds golodatelnogo hell.

The most difficult stage in terms of health – isacidotic crisis, coming on 5-10 day fasting (depending on the individual response of the organism). At this stage, the body tries to synthesize glucose through oxidation of fats. But, unfortunately, incomplete oxidation. That is, fats can not become hungry water and carbon dioxide, and toxic compounds in acetone, aldehydes and acids.

During the acidotic crisis haveto experience for yourself all the signs of poisoning: nausea, dizziness, weakness in the whole body. Slightly comfort can only be what acidotic crisis will end quickly, and from that moment begins the body’s power at the expense of domestic reserves. That is, the true fasting.

After the acidotic crisis life gets betterlife becomes more fun. In starving mood improves, disappears bad breath, lethargy passes. Now the main thing – do not overdo it with self-restraint.

By starving the body is necessary to accustom gradually. For beginners, experts advise to start with one day. If they penetrated the essence of the process, and you like it – you can start fasting until acidotic crisis: from 4 to 10 days. That is, until it becomes a chore. Next fasting should include acidotic crisis and take about two weeks.

And finally, the final stage – for aces -prolonged fasting 20 days. Their life is calculated according to the internal reserves. That is, if you have accumulated preizryadno fat reserves, the twenty days could be enough.

Once again: no history of short-term fasting, to undertake long – dangerous for health!

How to “get out” of starvation

For beginners mistakenly think that in fastingthe main thing – “to stand day, yes night to hold out.” In fact, the most important input and output of the process. This preparation of the body to function in the form of starvation – and vice versa: adaptation to the existence of well-fed in the usual mode. The most important thing (it is also the most difficult) – a gradual transition back and forth.

Nothing pleasant, believe me, you is not going to happen,If after two weeks you are fasting to celebrate immediately natreskaetes sausages. A similar behavior has ruined many of the blockade, taken from Leningrad on the Road of Life: pounce on the bread and the pair veal, many of them died. The fact that the digestive tract becomes hungry skill of processing a large volume of food.

Reverse mistake to glamorous young lady, after eating chops and cakes, and decided to “starve tomorrow.” The body to them for this “thank you” will not tell.

To come in: to smoothly enter into starvation, a few days need to drink fruit juices and eat vegetables, meat and fat – to exclude.

Go out: to come out of fasting, is a day to devote to drinking juices and then start full life with mild carbohydrate foods, after some time, to complement its proteins, and in the last instance – fats.

Types of fasting

Species starvation – like dogs nerezanyh. Many of them proudly wear the name of the author. Fasting “Bragg”, “by Shelton”, “Malakhov on”, “at Nikolaev,” “on Voitovich”. Just want to warn you: if you liked any method of “light”, Polyubopytstvuyte to start, if he has at least some medical or science education. And even better – to consult with your doctor: it is a lot of contraindications for this or that kind of fasting.

Dry fasting (it is absolute). When no food, no water in the body is not fed. Accordingly, the dry fasting is very important preparatory period, which should last at least a week. During this time, from the diet excludes all animal foods, sweet and fatty. The very dry fasting lasts from 3 to 5 days, plus a week should be put on the output from the process.

I must say that, despite all thewellness delights of dry fasting (including cleansing and tissue and organ regeneration and rejuvenation of the skin), to it there is an impressive list of contraindications. Here and ulcers, varices, and liver disease, and endocrine disorders.

Other fasting can be amateurish to call “wet”. There is still impossible, but drinking water is not precluded. It is on this wet field grazing large number golodatelnyh gurus who insist on their understanding of the process.

Fasting Bragg – 7-10 day fasting not limited amount of water. Moreover, the water must be distilled – they say, it is better to cleanse the body. During fasting welcome an active life, and are not welcome enema.

Fasting for Shelton – full (20 days) fasting on water (only when thirsty). During fasting, the body has to rest. Shelton as Bragg, the use of enemas.

Fasting for Malakhov – with fasting preliminary cleansing the body (liver,kidney, lymph). During fasting, it is desirable to use an enema with natural urine or evaporated. And more move. At Malakhov recommendations on the impact of moon phases on starving.

Fasting for Nikolaev – long-term (20-21-day), fastingstationary conditions under medical supervision. In addition to water for the starving Nikolaev is not forbidden to drink the infusion of rose hips. Accordingly, any “water tricks” or tincture – on schedule and in limited quantities.

/ Span>.

mymedinform.com

Mykolaiv (Ukrainian: Микола́їв ), also known as Nikolaev or Nikolayev (Russian: Никола́ев ), is a city in southern Ukraine, the administrative center of the Mykolaiv Oblast. Mykolaiv is arguably the main shipbuilding center of the Black Sea. Aside from three shipyards within the city, there are a number of research centers specializing in shipbuilding such as the State Research and Design Shipbuilding Center, Zoria-Mashproekt and others. The city has a population of 494,763 (2015 est.).

The city is an important transportation hub of Ukraine (sea port, commercial port, river port, highway and railway junction, airport).

Mykolaiv’s orderly layout reflects the fact that its development has been well planned from the founding of the city. Its main streets, including the three main east–west Avenues, are very wide and tree-lined. A significant part of Mykolaiv’s land area consists of beautiful parks. Park Peremohy (Victory) is a large park on the peninsula just north of the city center of Mykolaiv, on the north side of the Inhul river.

Name of city

The city uses two names, Ukrainian and Russian; there are several transliterations of each name. The Ukrainian name of the city is Микола́їв, transliterated as Mykolaiv, or (officially) Mykolayiv. The Russian name, Никола́ев, transliterates as Nikolaev or as Nikolayev.

The city’s founding was made possible by the Russian conquests during the Second Russo-Turkish War of 1787-1792. Founded by Prince Grigory Potemkin, Nikolaev was the last of the many cities he established. On 27 August 1789, Potemkin ordered its naming near the wharf at the mouth of the Ingul river, on a high, cool and breezy spot where the Ingul river meets the Southern Bug river. To build the city he brought in peasants, soldiers, and Turkish prisoners; 2,500 were working there during 1789. The shipyards were built first (1788). Potemkin named the city after Saint Nicholas, the patron of seafarers, on whose day (6 December) he had obtained victory at the siege of Ochakov in 1788. The name Nikolaev is known from the legal order (writ) Number 1065 by Prince Potemkin to Mikhail Faleev (ru) dated 27 August 1789.

In 1920, after the establishment of Soviet power, the Odessa provincial council (of laborers and peasants’ deputies) petitioned the then-Soviet Ukrainian government—the All-Ukrainian Central Executive Committee (VUTSIK)—to rename the city of Nikolaev to Vernoleninsk. As the city of Nikolaev was a district center of the Odessan province, presumably, the petition would have been initiated by the Odessa city council, but documentary evidence of this so far has not been identified. On 15 April 1924 the Plenum of the Central Administrative-Territorial Commission of the VUTSIK considered and rejected the petition of the Odessan executive committee. Perhaps the members of the Soviet-Ukraine government thought that the name sounded too obsequious.

Information regarding the alleged renaming of Nikolaev was disseminated by German maps of the 1920s and 1930s, as well as in German encyclopedic publications in 1927 and 1932, which show Vernoleninsk on the USSR part of the European maps. The city was designated as Nikolaev in publications of the same map in other languages.

To distinguish Mykolaiv from the much smaller west Ukraine city of Mykolaiv in Lviv Oblast, the latter is sometimes called “Mykolaiv on Dniester” after the major river that it is situated on, while the former is located on the Southern Bug, another major river, and may also be called “Mykolaiv on Bug”.

Administrative status

Mykolaiv is the administrative center of Mykolaiv Oblast (region), as well as that of both Mykolaiv and Vitovka Raions (districts) within the oblast. It is administratively incorporated as a city of oblast significance, and does not belong to any of the two raions.

Geographic characteristics

Bird’s-eye view on the city.

Mykolaiv is located on a peninsula in Ukraine’s steppe region 65 kilometers (40 mi) from the Black Sea along the estuary of the Southern Bug river (where it meets the Inhul River).

Both the Inhul River and the Southern Bug River follow very winding courses just before they join at the northeast corner of Mykolaiv. This has created several long and narrow peninsulas just north of Mykolaiv, and the main part of Mykolaiv is itself on a peninsula at a 180-degree bend in the Southern Bug River.

Mykolaiv is in a primarily flat terrain area (the steppe grain-producing region of southern Ukraine). The nearest mountains to Mykolaiv are 300 kilometres (186 miles) south, at the southern end of the Crimean Peninsula. The lack of any mountain barriers north of Mykolaiv means that very cold Arctic winds can blow south, unimpeded by any terrain elevation, to Mykolaiv in winter.

The area of the city is 260 square kilometres (100 sq mi).

Mykolaiv is in the second time zone (Eastern European Time).

Ecology

Mykolaiv’s environmental issues are typical for many cities in Ukraine: pollution of water, the air, and groundwater; drinking water quality, noise, waste management, and conservation of biological diversity in the city. One of Mykolaiv’s most urgent problems is the disposal of solid household waste.

The city has 18 preserved sites, totaling about 12 square kilometres (5 sq mi):

  • The Mykolaiv Zoo (considered one of the best zoos in Ukraine);
  • The monuments of landscape art: Park Peremohy, Park People’s Garden, 68 Paratroopers Park, Square, The Sivašskij, The Boulevard Bunker, Linea (Line) Park, Young Heroes Park; Youth Park;
  • The Botanical Natural Monument Memory Square;
  • The Dubki Reserved Nature boundary;
  • The Balabanovka Forest Reserve;
  • The Reservoir Hydrological Reserve;
  • The Turkish Fountain Hydrological Natural Monument;
  • The Dubka (oak) 4 Botanical Nature Monument.

Climate

The city’s climate is moderately continental with mild winters and hot summers. Mykolaiv’s average temperature is 10 °C (50 °F). The lowest average temperature is in January −3.1 °C (26 °F), the highest in July 22.3 °C (72 °F).

Mykolaiv has an average of 472 mm (19 in) of precipitation per year, with the lowest precipitation in October, and the most in July. Mykolaiv has snow cover every year, but its height is low.

Average relative humidity is 73% for the year; the lowest humidity is in August (60%); the highest in December (86%). The lowest cloud are seen in August; the highest are in December.

The prevailing winds come from the North; the least frequent source of wind is the Southeast. The maximum wind speed is in February, the lowest is from July through September. In January, the average wind speed is 4.1 m/s (meters per second); in July, the average is 3.1 m/s.

14.0
(57.2)
18.1
(64.6)
24.1
(75.4)
32.3
(90.1)
37.4
(99.3)
37.8
(100)
40.0
(104)
40.1
(104.2)
36.5
(97.7)
32.9
(91.2)
23.4
(74.1)
15.6
(60.1)
40.1
(104.2)
1.1
(34)
2.2
(36)
7.7
(45.9)
15.8
(60.4)
22.5
(72.5)
26.5
(79.7)
29.3
(84.7)
29.0
(84.2)
22.7
(72.9)
15.7
(60.3)
7.5
(45.5)
2.5
(36.5)
15.3
(59.5)
−1.9
(28.6)
−1.4
(29.5)
3.1
(37.6)
10.2
(50.4)
16.5
(61.7)
20.5
(68.9)
23.1
(73.6)
22.6
(72.7)
16.9
(62.4)
10.6
(51.1)
4.0
(39.2)
−0.4
(31.3)
10.4
(50.7)
−4.6
(23.7)
−4.7
(23.5)
−0.5
(31.1)
5.3
(41.5)
11.0
(51.8)
15.2
(59.4)
17.5
(63.5)
16.8
(62.2)
11.9
(53.4)
6.4
(43.5)
1.0
(33.8)
−3.0
(26.6)
6.2
(43.2)
−29.7
(−21.5)
−28.8
(−19.8)
−20.8
(−5.4)
−7.9
(17.8)
−1.2
(29.8)
4.2
(39.6)
9.4
(48.9)
4.6
(40.3)
−1.4
(29.5)
−13.4
(7.9)
−18.2
(−0.8)
−24.6
(−12.3)
−29.7
(−21.5)
29.1
(1.146)
32.0
(1.26)
26.1
(1.028)
26.0
(1.024)
43.8
(1.724)
49.6
(1.953)
47.3
(1.862)
32.8
(1.291)
40.7
(1.602)
32.0
(1.26)
34.9
(1.374)
33.1
(1.303)
443.8
(17.472)
6.7 6.0 5.8 5.2 6.2 6.8 5.5 3.6 4.9 4.7 5.5 6.8 69.7
69 74 122 181 263 289 308 295 232 168 69 52 2,122
Source #1: European Climate Assessment & Dataset (extremes 1900–2015)
Source #2: NOAA (sun, 1961–1990)

History

“View of the City of Nikolaev”, painting by Fedor Alexeev, 1799.

Archeologists have found proof of ancient settlements on the current territory of current Mykolaiv.

The history of the city has always been closely connected to shipbuilding. The town was founded in 1789 by the Russian Governor General of Novorossiya, Prince Grigory Potemkin, initially as a shipyard called simply a New Shipyard on the Ingul river. Prince Potemkin signed an order to construct a shipyard on 27 August 1789, which is considered to be the city’s birth date. The shipyard was to undertake the repair of naval ships in the Russo-Turkish War. Later Potemkin ordered the shipyard to be named Nikolaev to commemorate the date when Ochakov fell to the Russian troops under his command on 6 December 1788, the feast day of Saint Nicholas (Nikolai) on the Russian Orthodox Church calendar.

The Russian Empire’s Black Sea Navy Headquarters was in Mykolaiv for more than 100 years until the Imperial Russian Navy moved it to Sevastopol, near the Southern tip of Crimean Peninsula. During the Crimean War Mykolaiv became the main rear base to support Russia’s efforts in the war. Most businesses that were created in the city belonged to the military industrial complex, and, in this regard, Mykolaiv, was closed to foreign visitors for many decades.

In March 1816, Admiral Aleksey Greig was appointed to the post of Governor of the city. While in that post until 1833, he did much for Mykolaiv. Port facilities were built. A credit society (cooperative) was established, and Mykolaiv increased its seaborne trade. Morskoii (Marine) Boulevard was built in the city, along with sidewalks. In addition, open men’s and women’s colleges were, built, as was a shelter. In 1820, Admiral Greig founded the Marine Astronomical Observatory in Mykolaiv. In 1826, he, for the first time in the history of the Russian Navy, set up the Russian Naval headquarters in Mykolaiv. The headquarters included fleet combat training during peacetime and the development of plans for military operations during wartime.

From 1860 to 1871, the military Governor of Mykolaiv was Bogdan von Glazenap. His highest command in the town was in 1862. He encouraged foreign vessels to call at the commercial port and encouraged foreigners to come to Mykolaiv to live. Therefore, foreign governments established foreign consulates in Mykolaiv. This led to the transformation of Mykolaiv into a large commercial port.

Shipyard in Mykolaiv circa 1900.

By the late 19th century, Mykolaiv’s port ranked third in the Russian Empire, after Saint Petersburg and Odessa, in terms of trade with foreign countries. In addition, grain export suppliers of the steppe region (of Ukraine and Southern Russia) were first in the Russian Empire. Mykolaiv had become a great industrial center in the South of Ukraine.

Mykolaiv was major Jewish centre of Russian Empire in the 19th century. In the 19th century, the Czarist governments had largely banned Russian Empire Jews from living East of the Dnieper River. Mykolaiv is in the area west of the Dnieper, which was where Jews were legally allowed to reside (the legal area of Jewish residence was known as the Pale of Settlement). The Lubavitcher Rebbe, Menachem Mendel Schneerson (the seventh leader in the Chabad-Lubavitch dynasty) was born in Mykolaiv on 18 April 1902.

In 1918, Mykolaiv survived its first occupation by foreign troops. In 1920, Soviet power was established there.

With the beginning of World War II Mykolaiv was occupied on 16 August 1941. In September, German forces massacred over 35,000 non-combatants, many of them Jews, in the city and its region. During the occupation, an underground partisan sabotage group, the Mykolaiv Center conducted guerilla activities. On 28 March 1944 the city was liberated, in part because of Soviet Senior Lieutenant Konstantin F. Olshansky’s paratroopers and their daring raid, during which the majority of his troops were killed.

In the post-war period Mykolaiv became one of shipbuilding centers of the USSR, with three shipyards: Black Sea, 61 Kommunara, and Okean.

The asteroid 8141 Nikolaev (1982 SO4) was discovered in 1982 by Nikolai Chernykh at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory and was named in honor of the city.

In March 2012, Mykolaiv gained international notoriety for lawlessness and police corruption following the rape and murder of Oksana Makar. Her three attackers were apprehended, but two were released because of family connections to local government officials. After a media outcry and public protests, all three attackers were charged with her murder.

During the Euromaidan protests, Mykolayiv was the scene of anti-Yanukovich protests. After the victory of Euromaidan, the situation calmed down somewhat until 7 April 2014 when some pro-Russians tried to take over the local administration building. As a result, the pro-Ukrainians stopped them from taking over the administration building and destroyed the pro-Russian camp not far from it, after which the situation in the city became definitively calm.

Demographics

Awards

The Soviet Government awarded Mykolaiv the Order of the Red Banner of Labour on 31 December 1970, for successfully fulfilling its assignments for the development of industrial production, in the USSR’s five-year economic plan.

Administrative districts

Mykolaiv is divided into four districts:

The Tsentralnyi District is located in the northwest of the city. It includes the historic center of Mykolaiv, Rocket tract, Temvod, Salt, Northern, Ternovka (in Ternovca also acts village council), Matveevka, Varvarovka.

The Zavodskyi District is located in the west of the city. In this area, many industrial enterprises are concentrated. It also includes neighborhoods Lescaut and Alluviation, as well as towns of Velyka Koreniha and Mala Koreniha.

The Inhulskyi District (former Leninskyi District) is located in the east of Mykolaiv. Among other things, it includes the new Horticulture, YUTZ, New Watering, Old Watering. The district has a zoo, bus and railway stations.

The Korabelnyi District is located in the south of the city. It includes a broad beam, Zhovtneve, Balabanovka, Kulbakino.

Official symbols

Mykolaiv adopted its current coat of arms on 26 September 1997. Its design came from the one adopted in 1883, by removing the symbol of Kherson province to which Mykolaiv didn’t belong anymore. Mykolaiv adopted its current flag on 2 July 1999 and its anthem on 11 September 2004.

Economy

Shipbuilding

Today Mykolaiv is a major shipbuilding center of Ukraine (as, earlier, of the whole Soviet Union) and an important river port. The city has three major shipyards one of which is capable of building large navy ships. Other important industries are mechanical engineering, power engineering, metallurgy and last 10 years – food industry.

Mykolaiv was closed to foreign visitors until the late 1980s because of many clandestine Soviet Navy projects (as well as the Mykolaiv Air Force base, turbine factory and military port). The majority of the Soviet Navy’s surface ships including its only aircraft carrier, the Kuznetzov were built in Mykolaiv.

In May 2011, Ukrainian President Viktor Yanukovych visited Mykolaiv and said that Ukraine is serious about reviving and further developing of its shipbuilding industry in the Mykolaiv region.

Other industries

Electronic industries are located in the city. The enterprise “Zoriya – Mashproekt” manufactures equipment used in ships and products used for transportation of natural gas and generation of electricity.

One of the largest enterprises in the city is Mykolaiv Aluminia Factory, which produces aluminia, raw material for the production of aluminum.

In addition to heavy industry, the city has a developed food processing industry, including a juice maker, Sandora, a dairy products maker, Laktalis-Mykolaiv, and a brewery, Yantar. The enterprise Nibulon is one of the leaders in the Ukrainian agrarian market.

The Mykolaiv Armored Factory has been a large repair facility for Ukraine’s military during the War in Donbass. Engineers at the plant designed an armored ambulance based on the BTR-70 to be used by the Ukrainian Armed Forces.

In January 2017, Mykolaiv Development Agency has released a promo video of city’s investment potential.

Ukrainian military presence

Mykolaiv, being an important strategic city in southern Ukraine has a significant Ukrainian military presence, including the shipyards that build Ukraine’s surface navy ships, the Mykolaiv Ukrainian Navy base, the “MARP” aircraft repair factory (Mykolaiv), and the Kulbakino army base (in the Mykolaiv Oblast, outside of the city of Mykolaiv).

Previously for many years after World War II the city had been home to the 92nd Guards Motor Rifle Division, the former 92nd Guards Rifle Division. The 79th Airmobile Brigade is based in the city.

Transportation

Mykolaiv is one of Ukraine’s most important transportation junctions. It is a major commercial river and sea port, and a major highway and rail junction. Mykolaiv also has a dual-function passenger and freight airport, but passenger service at the airport is not significant, compared to Ukraine’s major airports. In addition to the airport and sea and river port, Mykolaiv has two train stations, and an intercity bus station.

Air

Mykolaiv Airport (IATA code NLV), one of the largest and most technically well equipped airports in the South of Ukraine, serves the city. The airport, located northwest of Mykolaiv, is mainly used for air freight and only has limited passenger service. Russian airline UTAir Aviation offers flights from Mykolaiv to Moscow (Vnukovo – VKO airport). In addition, there are one-hour passenger flights from Odessa (the nearest major airport) to Mykolaiv. Almost all airline passenger service in the South West of Ukraine (where Mykolaiv is located) is through Odessa International Airport: to reach Mykolaiv by airplane, tourists generally reach Odessa by plane, and then take a bus, taxi or train, for approximately 2 hours, to Mykolaiv. Odessa, the largest city in South West Ukraine, is 132 km (82 miles) from Mykolaiv.

Kulbakino airport, also known as Nikolaev, is a Class I military aerodrome located just to the southeast of the city center. It primarily supports wings of Sukhoi Su-24, Sukhoi Su-25, Sukhoi Su-27, and Mikoyan MiG-29.

Bus travel long distance

Mykolaiv is an 8.5-hour bus ride from Kiev’s main bus station. Ukrainian private national bus companies Gyunsel and Avtoluks operate overnight buses from Kiev to Mykolaiv seven nights per week. The bus station in Mykolaiv is located at Prospekt (Avenue) Bohoyavlenskyi 21.

Roads

Road on Varvarivskyi bridge, Mykolaiv

The main north-south highway that passes through Mykolaiv is H (or M)-14.

The main East-West Highway that passes through Mykolaiv is E-58 M-14 (West and then South to Odessa), and South East to Kherson, a major port on the Dneper River, just before it flows into the Black Sea. The E-58 M-14 then continues East to the major industrial city and port in South Eastern Ukraine, Mariupol’.

The main highways to and from Mykolaiv are from Kherson (65 km (40 mi)), Odessa (120 km (75 mi)), Uman (320 km (199 mi)), Chişinău (Kishniev), Moldova (325 km (202 mi)), the Crimean Peninsula (350 km (217 mi), Kiev (500 km (311 mi), Kharkiv (520 km (323 mi), Lviv (350 km (217 mi) (Western Ukraine). Ukraine’s roads, including those leading from Mykolaiv, tend to be poorly maintained and can be very dangerous.

Roads through Mykolaiv include:

  • the east-west Euro-Asian transport corridor: Odessa — Mykolaiv — Kherson — Dzhankoy — Kerch.
  • the corridor Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation: Reni — Izmail — Odessa — Mykolaiv — Kherson — Melitopol — Berdyansk — Mariupol — Novoazovsk.

the road M14 (Odessa — Novoazovsk), having an exit to the main highway M18 (Yalta — Simferopol — Kharkiv).

Roads to/from Mykolaiv include:

  • R-06 (Ulianovka — Mykolaiv) with the highway M05 (Odessa — Kiev), which, in turn, is linked with the highway M12 in the city district of Uman, having an exit on the route Lublin — Warsaw — Gdańsk (Poland). The distance of the route Gdańsk — Mykolaiv is 1530 kilometers.
  • N11 (Dnipro — Kryvyi Rih — Mykolaiv)
  • N14 (Аleksandrovka — Kropyvnytskyi — Mykolaiv)

Bridges

Mykolaiv, being located at the confluence of two major rivers, has two main bridges.

Ingul River bridge in Mykolaiv

Old pedestrian bridge over Ingul River

The Varvarivskyi Bridge over Southern Bug is a swing bridge with Europe’s largest span (134 m). It is also the southernmost bridge over the Southern Bug. The bridge connects the North coast of Mykolaiv to its Tsentralnyi Raion, located on the West Bank of the river. The Odeske Highway crosses the bridge and then continues south-west to Odessa.

Another major bridge is the Inhul Bridge crossing the Inhul River. The bridge leads from the north coast of Mykolaiv, and goes north-northeast to the peninsula on the north side of the Inhul, just north of Mykolaiv. On the north Side of the Inhul River, the Heroyiv Stalingrada Highway crosses the bridge, streaming into Pushkinska Street on the other side.

Rail

Overnight train travel in sleeper-berth passenger trains is a very common way to travel long distances in Ukraine, cheaper, more comfortable and faster than buses – and more environment-friendly, for the matter. There are nightly trains from Kiev’s main passenger train station to Mykolaiv.

In addition to Kiev, trains from Mykolaiv regularly run to the two closest major cities to Mykolaiv: Odessa (south west of Mykolaiv); and Kherson (south of Mykolaiv). Direct trains to Moscow (26 hours), Kiev (8-10), Lviv (18), Odesa (5), the Crimea (8 hours) depart every day. Train departures timetable. All trains have coach cars.

Mykolaiv’s passenger train station is called Mykolaiv – Passenger. It at the intersection of Myru Avenue and Novozavodska Street 5 (in Ukraine street address numbers are placed after the street name). From the city square outside the railway station, buses depart to all other parts of Mykolaiv.

Mykolaiv’s freight train station is called Mykolaiv-Gruzovoi (Freight). It is located at Pryvokzalna ploshcha (Square).

Water-borne travel

Though a major Ukrainian commercial sea port, Mykolaiv has no regular passenger water-borne service. Water transport is offered by three sea ports and one river port, and also by several terminals. The port is linked with the sea by Dnieper-Bug Estuary canal. The can begins at the island Berezan and extends 44 kilometers until it reaches the port of Mykolaiv. The canal consistes of 13 tracks, 6 of which reach Dnieper Estuary, and the rest — along the river Southern Buh. The width of the canal is 100 meters (330 feet). Its depth is 10.5 meters.

Large ocean-going ships can reach Mykolaiv year round, via the Southern Bug River. The Southern Bug River, which flows into the Black Sea 65 kilometres (40 miles) south of Mykolaiv, is 1.5 km (0.9 miles) wide in Mykolaiv. Mykolaiv’s passenger river port is at Varvarovskii Spusk (Descent) 5.

The ports are:

  • Mykolaiv Commercial Sea Port
  • Olvia
  • Dnieper-Bug Commercial Sea Port
  • Mykolaiv River Port

Local transportation

The main forms of city transport are fixed-route marshrutkas, buses, trolley buses, and trams.

Streetcars (trams)

The length of Mykolaiv’s streetcar (tram) lines is 73 kilometers. From 1897 until 1925 Mykolaiv’s streetcars were pulled by horses. Streetcars began to be powered by electricity in 1915, and this has continued through the present. At their inception, the tracks were 1000 millimeters, but during the period from 1952 to 1972 they were switched to standard gauge.

Тrolleybuses

The length of Mykolaiv’s trolleybus lines is 59 kilometers. Mykolaiv’s trolleybuses have operated since 29 October 1967.

Education

There are several universities in Mykolaiv. The main universities are: Admiral Makarov National University of Shipbuilding (leading shipbuilding university in Ukraine), Petro Mohyla Black Sea State University, Sukhomlinsky National University of Mykolaiv and Mykolaiv State Agrarian University.

Sukhomlinsky National University of Mykolaiv is the oldest university in Mykolaiv. The idea of the university foundation arose in the 1860s, but it was realized only on July 18, 1913, when the Mykolaiv Teacher’s Institute was founded. Nowadays there are 7,000 students studying at the university, 300 teachers working at 36 departments. Annually, the University graduates 1,000 specialists and 60-70 undergraduates.

There are 10 higher education institutions in Mykolaiv of level III or IV accreditation. 65 general education schools, lycees, gymnasium schools, 3 evening schools, and 12 private learning institutions are in the city.

Society

Religion

Roman Catholic church of Saint Joseph

Surb Gevorg Armenian church

Mykolaiv is the headquarters of the Mykolaiv Episcopate of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church, which has 18 churches (temples) in the city.

Mykolaiv is also the headquarters of the Mykolaiv Episcopate of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Kyivan Patriarchate.

Religious organizations and other faiths are broadly represented in the city.

Culture

There are three performing arts theaters in Mykolaiv: the Academic Ukrainian Theater of Drama and Musical Comedy, the Mykolaiv State Puppet Theater, and the Mykolaiv Academic Art Russian Drama Theater. In addition, the Mykolaiv Oblast Philharmonic performs in the city.

Mykolaiv has the following museums: Mykolayiv Regional Museum of Local History, The Museum of Shipbuilding and Fleet, the Museum of the World War II Partisan Movement, the V. V. Vereshchagin Art Museum.

Four movie theaters operate in Mykolaiv: Yunost’ (Youth), Rodina (Motherland), Pioneer, Multiplex. Movies shown include the latest Hollywood films dubbed into Ukrainian and modern Russian films.

Media

Popular publications include “Vecherniy Nikolayev” (Evening Mykolaiv), “Nikolaevsckie Novosti” (Mykolaiv News), and “Yuzhnaya Pravda” (Southern Truth). Many publications have an Internet version, but exist in an independent Internet publication.

Television programs that are broadcast in Mykolaiv include movies, news, dramas (some of which originated in other countries, such as Mexico and the USA and are dubbed), (some of which also originate in other countries and are dubbed) cartoons, and professional sporting events such as Ukrainian football (soccer)> Mykolaiv has the following TV channels: 1+1; 2+2; 5 Kanal; ICTV; Inter; Real Estate TV; Tonis: K1: Kanal Ukraina; Kultura (Ukraina); CTB; TV: TET; and TRK.

Sports

Mykolaiv is represented within Ukrainian Bandy and Rink-bandy Federation.

MFC Mykolaiv (Municipal Football Club “Mykolaiv”, Ukrainian: Муніципальний футбольний клуб “Миколаїв”) is a Ukrainian football club. The club has been demoted three times from the Ukrainian Premier League. MFС Mykolaiv’s best achievement in the Ukrainian Premier League was 13th place (in 1994–95). MFC Mykolaiv reached 1st place in Druha Liha group A in 2010–11 season and was promoted to Persha Liha. Mykolaiv’s main football stadium is at the west end of Tsentralnyi Prospekt, near the west end of the peninsula that Mykolaiv is on.

Mykolaiv’s professional basketball team is MBC Mykolaiv. The team has won or finished second or third in several international tournaments since 1988, and won the Ukrainian Championship in 1992. MBC Mykolaiv is part of the Ukrainian Basketball SuperLeague, which is the top professional basketball league in Ukraine.

Gallery

International relations

Mykolaiv is part of the International Black Sea Club, The World Council of Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI), and the International Assembly of Capitals and Major Cities of the CIS (certain countries that were part of the former Soviet Union) countries.

Mykolaiv’s 10 sister cities:

  • Batumi, Georgia (since 1995);
  • Trieste, Italy (since 1996);
  • Nilüfer, Turkey (since 2001);
  • Tiraspol, Moldova (since 2004);
  • Moscow, Russia (since 2005);
  • Pleven, Bulgaria (from 2005);
  • Lyon, France (since 2006);
  • Borjomi, Georgia (since 2006);
  • Dezhou, China (since 2009);
  • Mogilev, Belarus (since 2009).

Notable residents

  • Isaak Babel (1894–1940) – journalist and writer, spent part of his childhood in Mykolaiv.
  • Stepan Makarov (1849–1904) – commander of the Imperial Russian Navy, oceanographer, and author.
  • Yuri Nosenko (1927–2008) – KGB defector, born in Mykolaiv.
  • Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson (1902–1994), born in Mykolaiv.
  • African Spir (1837–1890) – philosopher studied in Mykolaiv.
  • Lev Trotskiy – revolutioner, studied in Nikolaev.
  • Georgy Brusilov (1884–1914?) – Arctic explorer.
  • Solomon Rufus Davis (Desyatnik) (1916–2006) – political scientist in Australia, born in Mykolaiv.
  • Mykola Arkas (1853–1909) – Ukrainian composer and historian.

See also

  • Black Sea Shipyard
  • 61 Kommunara Shipbuilding Plant
  • Okean Shipyard

References

  1. ^ a b “Чисельність наявного населення України (Actual population of Ukraine)” (PDF) (in Ukrainian). State Statistics Service of Ukraine. Retrieved 1 July 2016. 
  2. ^ Mayors of Mykolayiv, Ivano-Frankivsk become known after elections, Ukrinform (16 November 2015)
  3. ^ Compare: Bagalei, Dmitrii Ivanovich (2016) . Колонизация Новороссийского края и первые шаги его по пути культуры (in Russian). Litres. ISBN 9785040006410. Retrieved 2016-11-21. В 1788 году, по приказанию Потемкина, в небольшой деревне Витовке были построены казармы в госпиталь, а на реке Ингуле заведена верфь. 
  4. ^ Montefiore, Simon. “Potemkin: Catherine The Great’s Imperial Partner,” Vintage Books, 2000, p.277
  5. ^ “Ордера князя Потемкина-Таврического 1788 – 1791 гг. М.Л. Фалееву – Библиотека “Феникс”. История Новороссии”. sites.google.com. Retrieved 18 November 2017. 
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  7. ^ a b Благоустройство города Archived 4 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine., gorsovet.mk.ua
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  9. ^ Состояние окружающей природной среды Archived 4 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine., gorsovet.mk.ua
  10. ^ Обращение с отходами Archived 4 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine., gorsovet.mk.ua
  11. ^ Объекты природно-заповедного фонда Archived 4 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine., gorsovet.mk.ua
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  13. ^ “Climatology Maps: Mean of daily maximum temperature”. European Climate Assessment & Dataset. Retrieved April 28, 2016. 
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  16. ^ “Climatology Maps: Precipitation Sum”. European Climate Assessment & Dataset. Retrieved April 28, 2016. 
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  18. ^ “Indices data: Minimum of daily minimum temperature and Maximum of daily maximum temperature”. European Climate Assessment & Dataset. Retrieved 23 April 2016. 
  19. ^ “Nikolaev (Mykolaiv) Climate Normals 1961–1990”. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 28 April 2016. 
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  25. ^ Первая всеобщая перепись населения Российской Империи 1897 г. Распределение населения по родному языку и уездам 50 губерний Европейской России. г. Николаев (воен. губернаторство) Archived 12 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine.
  26. ^ Всесоюзная перепись населения 1926 года. Национальный состав населения по регионам республик СССР. Николаевский округ. Городские поселения. Archived 12 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine.
  27. ^ Всесоюзная перепись населения 1939 года. Национальный состав населения районов, городов и крупных сел союзных республик СССР Archived 12 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine.
  28. ^ Кабузан В. М. Украинцы в мире динамика численности и расселения
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  31. ^ a b “City attributes – Nikolaev city council”. Mykolaiv City Council. Retrieved 18 November 2017. 
  32. ^ “Marine Log: Yanukovych seeks shipbuilding revival”. Kyivpost.com. 18 May 2011. Retrieved 26 March 2013. 
  33. ^ “Armored ambulance based on the BTR-70”. Unian. 
  34. ^ Promo invest in Mykolaiv PN.MK.UA
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  42. ^ a b c d “Вокзалы Николаева”. Rtpp.com.ua. Retrieved 26 March 2013. 
  43. ^ (in Ukrainian) Port “Oktyabrsk” renamed “Olvia”, Espreso.tv (18 October 2016)
  44. ^ “Google Translate”. Translate.google.co.uk. Retrieved 26 March 2013. 
  45. ^ International Cooperation Archived 23 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine., gorsovet.mk.ua

Notes

External links

  • Official portal of The Mykolaiv City Council Note that the Ukrainian language version has more working features than the English and Russian language versions.
  • Nikolaev Travel Guide for English speaking visitors
  • Mykolaiv travel guide from Wikivoyage

en.wikipedia.org

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