Diet with a reduction 10

Are you thinking to remove painful uterine fibroids?

Fibroids literally kill with its severe pain and non-stop periods. It ruins sex life and endangers the dreams of becoming a Mom. Fibroids are the number ONE reason for hysterectomy in the US.

I upset…

I feel upset when I have seen a news of a teenage girl who removed her uterus unable to bear the extreme pain. It really made me very sad that the modern medicine fails to treat the menace of fibroids for which woman has to sacrifice her motherhood.

The real problem is this…

The real tragedy is that the removal of the uterus doesn’t give women freedom from disease. Here you have to realize one thing. The fibroids itself is not a problem.

The real problem is estrogen dominance. The removal of the uterus doesn’t correct estrogen dominance and therefore it will manifest in various forms including ovarian cysts and breast cancer.

The First and foremost…

You have to realize that there is no fault with your body and therefore stop feeling bad about yourself. The environment you live, the diets you eat and everyday products you use are responsible for estrogen dominance in your body.

What it means is that the environment you live, the diets available in the market are bad but not your body. If you can acknowledge this fact and take corrective measures, your body is capable of restoring its health and you will be free from not only fibroids but also other life-threatening diseases.

What are fibroids?

Fibroids are the tumors and they grow in the uterus cavity or on the wall of the uterus. Estrogen and progesterone hormonal imbalance is responsible for the growth of fibroids. See Are You Sick of Fibroids Pain and Bleeding?

Complications of Fibroids growth:

  • Fibroids cause you mild to severe painful periods…
  • Fibroids could cause infertility…
  • Fibroids could block your fallopian tubes…

The root cause of fibroids

Estrogen dominance

Excess estrogen in your body feeds fibroids and therefore your fibroids grow bigger. Estrogen comes from the foods you eat and the environment you live in. So unknowingly you are feeding your fibroids regularly. Don’t think that it is only a fertility problem. Excess estrogen will cause breast cancer, ovarian cysts and other life-threatening diseases.

“Study after study has repeatedly shown that the majority of breast cancers in adult women are non-genetically linked, and upwards of eighty percent of breast cancer, is caused by estrogen dominance. Michael Lam, M.D…Read more 

The good news is this.

your fibroids will starve, shrink and die.

Once you realize this fact and take necessary dietary changes,  your fibroids will starve, shrink and die. In view of these facts, you must adhere to the 10 diet rules that I’m discussing below to get complete freedom from deadly fibroids.

Fibroid Diet Rule 1: Minimize Toxic Foods, High Glycemic Index Foods That Contribute To Hormonal Imbalance.

Eating foods with a high dietary glycemic index (GI), a measurement of the effects of carbohydrates on blood glucose levels, or high glycemic load (GL), a ranking of carbohydrate content of various foods based on their GI, is thought to potentially promote tumor growth by increasing endogenous concentrations of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Examples of high GI and GL foods include instant white rice, white bread, rice cakes, French fries, donuts, and scones.

See Shrink Your Uterine Fibroids by Eliminating the Foods and Toxins That Feed Them

In vitro studies have shown that uterine fibroid cells proliferate in the presence of IGF-1. Other studies have found a positive association between high GL and other hormone-responsive tumors, such as ovarian and endometrial cancer. click here to read more

Fibroid Diet Rule 2: Maximize nutritious and hormone balancing foods

Due to the suspected link with estrogen, any factor that results in an increase in estrogen levels such as hormonal imbalance or artificial hormones tends to be associated with higher chance of fibroid. On the flip side, studies have shown that when estrogen levels decline such as after menopause; there is a much less likelihood of having fibroids.

The intake of saturated fats and incorporating high-fiber foods into a daily diet. Calcium D-glucarate which is commonly present in cherries, oranges, apples, broccoli and cabbage also helps to eliminate excess estrogen from the body. click here to read more

Fibroid Diet Rule 3: Maintain digestive Alkaline-Acid Balance

Almost all foods that we eat, after being digested, absorbed and metabolized release either an acid or an alkaline base (bicarbonate) into the blood. Grains, fish, meat, poultry, shellfish, cheese, milk, and salt all produce acid. The mass consumption of these foods has caused our bodies to become overly acidic, which strips it of minerals. Over the long haul, those who do not balance their diet with alkaline foods (vegetables and fruits, primarily) become prone to weak bones, joints and muscles, heart disease, diabetes, kidney disease, and a host of other health problems. In other words, long-term health and longevity have everything to do with acid-alkaline balance. click here to read more

Fibroid Diet Rule 4: Maximize consumption of raw foods

source: www.geniuscook.com

Aim for a raw food: cooked food ratio of 80:20. Meaning, eat lots of fresh vegetables, some fruit (don’t overdo it), nuts, seeds. Raw. This helps increase your dietary fiber, which is also useful in shrinking fibroids. click here to read more

Fibroid Diet Rule 5: Eliminate food allergens

When the body’s immune system reacts abnormally to something a person eats or drinks, it’s known as a food allergy.

According to FARE, eight foods are responsible for 90 percent of food allergies.

They are:

  • cow’s milk
  • eggs
  • peanuts
  • fish
  • shellfish
  • tree nuts (such as cashews or walnuts)
  • wheat
  • soy. click here to read more

Fibroid Diet Rule 6: Optimize your digestion

source: www.new-shore.com

Eat pesticide-free fresh fruits and vegetables. The enzymes in fresh, uncooked fruits and vegetables will help restore the natural digestive juices to the gut and increase digestion. If your digestive tract is too fragile to digest raw fruits and vegetables, consider juicing them to extract the enzymes and easily absorb nutrients. A balanced digestive tract has a healthy ratio of digestive enzymes and beneficial bacteria to keep thyroid hormones and estrogen functioning normally. click here to read more

Fibroid Diet Rule 7: Enhance your immune system

Your first line of defense is to choose a healthy lifestyle. Following general good-health guidelines is the single best step you can take toward keeping your immune system strong and healthy. Every part of your body, including your immune system, functions better when protected from environmental assaults and bolstered by healthy-living strategies such as these:

  • Don’t smoke.
  • Eat a diet high in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, and low in saturated fat.
  • Exercise regularly.
  • Maintain a healthy weight.
  • Control your blood pressure.
  • If you drink alcohol, drink only in moderation.
  • Get adequate sleep. click here to read more

Fibroid Diet Rule 8: Cleanse your body regularly

source: www.totalbeauty.com

Vibrant and exceptional health comes from regular body cleansing and reducing your daily toxin intake. To achieve a state of optimal health, people should perform a full body cleanse once or twice per year. Cleansing your body is the first step to eliminating toxins from your life. click here to read more

Fibroid Diet Rule 9: Detoxify your body as and when needed

This is the most important step to shrink fibroids.

The liver is the body’s largest gland. One of its major function is to detoxify the entire body. If the liver is not working properly, the body will be filled with toxins and excess hormones Estrogen is metabolized in the liver.

Estrogen that is not metabolized by the liver will continue to circulate and exert its effect on the body. Herbs that detoxifies and strengthens the liver will help speed up the removal of excess estrogen, toxins and other impurities from the body. To cleanse and strengthen the liver, these are the things you should do.

Herbal cleansing to clear the gastrointestinal tract and fortify the liver: One of the best herbs to fortify the liver is silymarin a special extract of milk thistle.

Others include: dandelion leaf and root, turmeric, artichoke. click here to read more

If you have growing fibroids and worried about your fertility, try this Easy Fertility Cleansing

Fibroid Diet Rule 10:  Eat Sattvic diet to counteract the stress

source: www.mrwallpaper.com

All the modern foods cause stress. Continuous stress for a prolonged time will have serious implications on your fibroids.

Eating Sattvic diets is the best solution to live a peaceful and joyful life. Sattva means goodness, positivity, wholesomeness according to yogic science.

Sattvic diet regimen is, therefore, include all the foods that are “pure, essential, natural, vital, energy-containing clean diets”.

Some of the sattvic diets are seasonal foods, fruits, dairy products, nuts, seeds, oils, ripe vegetables, legumes, whole grains, and non-meat based proteins. Meditation and yoga can help to reduce stress too, especially if practiced regularly.

Bottom line…

So far you have learned that estrogen dominance is the main culprit for your fibroids. You have also learned that there is no problem in your body. Most importantly you have discovered 10 dietary rules to combat your fibroids permanently.

Finally, I want to tell you one important thing. Merely gaining knowledge doesn’t cure your disease. If you keep doing what you’re doing, you’ll get the same result. So it is the time to implement these diet rules forthwith so that the knowledge you have gained will be fruitful and purposeful.

Are heavy bleeding and severe pain killing you?

When fibroids grow beyond 15 cm, belly looks like pregnant. They bleed heavily with massive blood clots. This may endanger the fertility irreversibly…

ATTENTION!

Pills work short term but the problem gets worse. Those who undergo surgery often develop fibroids again… So it is the time for C.H.A.N.G.E… So you won’t MISS the chance of becoming MOM.

Here is what to do now…

DISCOVER How Shinta Oney (Turkey) Shrunk Her Fibroids By 90% & Get Pregnant (AVOIDING ONE ROUTINE PRACTICE; most uterine fibroids sufferers unknowingly follow this)

Fight Your Infertility Blog Readers Stats
(Thank You for your Overwhelming FAITH on us)

Fight Your Infertility Blog Readers Like & Share Our Content  (Thank You for your Love)

Do Uterine Fibroids Shrink Naturally Without Surgery?

In general…

You try to deal with uterine fibroids through conventional treatments. You feel relief from your symptoms. But the growth of fibroids doesn’t stop.

Days, months passes and yet you don’t get complete cure from fibroids.

You want to try natural methods but not sure whether they can shrink your fibroids completely.

The Question is…

Do uterine fibroids shrink naturally without surgery…Continue to Read

Amanda Leto Fibroids Miracle Book: Suzi Ben Review

Is it really benign tumor…

Fibroid appears in the uterine walls of a woman. It is benign. This means that it is not cancerous. This tumor is like a smooth muscle which can begin with just a single tumor, to a cluster one.

The risk with fibroids…

Fibroid is not actually cancerous. Compared to other malignant tumors, this is not something that can eventually kill. But the problem with Fibroid is that it can create different kinds of complex problems in the future… Continue to Read

Shrink Your Uterine Fibroids by Eliminating the Foods and Toxins That Feed Them

If fibroids grow beyond 15 cm, their belly looks like they are pregnant. They bleed heavily with a lot of blood clots and they feel pressure in their hips and back along with pelvic pain.

Fibroids medicines fail.

Common drugs that are prescribed to treat fibroids such as oral contraceptives and anti-inflammatory drugs fail to tackle the root cause of fibroids

And most often…

Fibroids drugs cause a lot of side effects like cardiovascular problems, digestive disorders, excessive weight gain and damage to the reproductive system (It can seriously hinder the chances of getting pregnant)…Continue to Read

Uterine Fibroids | Heavy Menstrual Bleeding | 3 Natural Home Remedies

Invasive Treatments…

Mainstream doctors after trying painkillers and other medications go for surgical removal of fibroids or even removal of your uterus i.e hysterectomy.

Why fibroids grow again?

But these invasive surgical procedures will have many side effects. More than that it will not cure the root cause of fibroids and that is why fibroids grow again…Continue to Read

Stop Fibroids Bleeding and Pain with Four Simple Lifestyle Changes

Thank you for sharing your knowledge on how to become pregnant faster.from the tips u shared,advices and secrets for successful pregnancy.

I’m now less than 3 months pregnant for our first baby .i am turning 36 years old this month and we are very much happy with my husband.

Again thank u very much and may god bless you always.

– Maricris Postrado

Am so glad that I found you. Thank u so much for the information…

Now all I do is smile because I now know the cause. Am a new person now. The words I hear my with is ultrasound and surgery he did not tell me how I should address the problem.

You are a wonderful person am glad I found you.

– Sherron Williams

Dear Suzi, i am very grateful for all the mails sent to my mail box. I will try the procedures as soon as possible.

I will try to avoid all negatives food intake, less stress and exercising my body regularly. Thanks so much. Complement of the seasons.

– Opadokun Elizabeth

I’m Olu. A 35yrs old lady. I got the messages and watch the videos and I’m so inspired. I have multiple and large fibroids. Lost 2 pregnancies because my water broke at 14weeks.

The stories of all women touch me and i believe it will work for me also. Please help me.

-Oluranti Olabisi

Don’t Let Your Fertility Slip Away.
Protect it with Yogic Secrets.
Enjoy your Motherhood.

fightyourinfertility.com

Losing weight can be difficult without a healthy, balanced, low-calorie diet plan.To lose weight 10 kgs in a month, it requires great motivation and a strong control on your eating habits.

To help you lose weight safely and permanently without starving, I have come up with a perfect low-calorie, highly nutritious diet plan and fat burning exercises that will overcome your weight problems and will make you feel fit, healthy, slim and beautiful. Just strictly adhere to this diet plan and the 15-minute morning workout for 30 days and see the difference in your weight.

Diet Plan to Lose Weight 10 Kgs in a Month

Follow this Diet Plan (Day 1 – Day 30)

Morning Rise Up:

It is always best to start your day with 2 glasses of warm water to prevent constipation, eliminate toxins, stimulate blood flow, relax muscles and to control body fat.

Morning Weight Loss Detox Drink (7:00am – 7.30am)

Detox drinks help flush away those stored unwanted toxins, stored up water weight and excess sodium from the body.It boosts your metabolism and helps your body burn calories at a faster rate.You can choose any one of the following detox drinks based on your body needs and also you need to follow this on a regular basis for a month to lose weight 10 kgs.

Lemon Detox Drink – Drink a Glass of warm water mixed with 1/2 freshly squeezed lemon juice and a tsp of honey(optional) for cleansing the liver and for weight loss.

Ginger Detox Drink – Add 1 tsp of fresh ginger paste, 2 tbsp of fresh mint paste to a glass of lukewarm water and drink this every day to support fat loss.

Cumin Detox Drink – Cumin together with lemon and honey works as a powerful fat-burning detox drink.Boil a tbsp of black cumin seeds to a glass of water.Filter the cumin water into a glass, add a tsp of honey and a 1/4th slice of freshly squeezed lemon juice.Drink this water to improve digestion and dissolve excess stored fat.

Apple Cider Vinegar Detox Drink – ACV is a very effective way to detoxify the body and to lose weight 10 kgs fast.Add a tbsp of apple cider vinegar, 1/2 tsp of cayenne pepper in a glass of warm water and have this in the morning.

Cucumber Detox Drink – A highly beneficial detox drink for those with acidity and hyperacidity problems.Blend peeled cucumber with a handful of mint leaves and a 1/2 inch of ginger.Add 1/2 tsp of black salt and enjoy.

Morning Breakfast (8:00am-9:30am)

All the breakfast recipes under 250 Calories.You can choose anyone from the below list.

Oatmeal : Oatmeal is the perfect healthy choice for breakfast.It is low in calories and high in fibre, this combination helps you lose weight fast.Take 1/2 cup of quaker oats, add 1/2 cup of hot skimmed milk, a small tsp of honey for sweetness and topped it with some chopped apple, strawberries, black grapes, and cherries.

Egg Omelet With Green Tea: Egg is a low-calorie food packed with healthy proteins that keep you feeling satisfied for long.One large egg contains only about 78 calories.Green tea is a fat burning beverage.This combination boosts your metabolism and helps in fast weight loss.Make an omelet with 2 eggs, some chopped onions, tomatoes, and chilli and enjoy this with a cup of unsweetened green tea.

Idli with Sambar (Indian Recipe) – This spicy Indian meal is the perfect addition to your weight loss diet.You can enjoy a homemade steamed 2 medium-sized idlis + 1/2 cup of sambar for breakfast.This combination contains around 230 calories.

Apple Smoothie with Almonds: Apple smoothie is a fantastic and nutritious way to start your day.To make an apple smoothie, blend 2 medium sized peeled apples with a cup of skimmed milk, add a tsp of honey for sweetness and 1/2 tsp of cinnamon powder.Enjoy this smoothie for breakfast along with 9-10 almonds.

Kellogg’s Corn Flakes – If you are a busy person and you don’t get enough time for breakfast, then you can eat a bowl of Kellogg’s plain cornflakes with 1/2 cup of skimmed milk, garnished with some chopped dry fruits.This contains a total of 200 calories.

Vegetable Soup and Brown Bread – Homemade vegetable soup is an ideal way to lose weight and to provide essential vitamins, minerals and nutrients to the body.You can start your breakfast with a cup of vegetable soup and a slice of toasted brown bread.This breakfast combination contains less than 200 calories.

Mid-Morning Snack Time (10:30am – 11:30am)

Eating mid-morning snacks will keep you satiated until lunch and will help you eat less.All the mid-morning snack recipes are under 100 calories.Choose anyone from the below list.

Green Tea with Marie Biscuit – Green tea and weight loss go hand-in-hand.A cup of unsweetened green tea with 2 Marie biscuit possess a total of 50 calories.

Fruits – An ideal mid-morning snack would be a piece of fresh fruit.Fruits are high in antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals that improve your immunity and keeps your hunger at bay.You can have any one of these fruits: a small whole banana (90cals), 1 medium apple ( 80cal), papaya 1 cup (55 calories), watermelon 1 cup (46 calories), 1 whole small orange (45 calories), 1/2 cup of green grapes (55 calories).

Hot Chocolate – Sipping a small cup of hot chocolate drink can help you lose few pounds and could keep your mid-morning hunger pangs at bay.The powerful antioxidants in chocolate reverse anxiety and cut your appetite up to 30 percent.

Lunch Time (12.30 PM to 2:00 PM)

All the lunch recipes are under 300 calories.You can choose anyone from the below list.

Vegetable Soup – Soup is a delicious and nutritious way to fill your body with vitamins, antioxidants, and fiber.It gives a sensation of fullness without adding many calories. A big bowl of homemade vegetable soup contains around 140 calories.If you are lazy to make your own soup, you can try the ready-made Maggi mixed vegetable soup that contains around 98 calories for a bowl.Along with that, you can also enjoy 2 slices of toasted brown bread.

Grilled Salmon Fish with Steamed Rice – is a yummy way to satisfy your taste buds and hunger without adding more calories.One fillet of grilled salmon fish contains around 124 calories.You can relish this with 1/2 cup of steamed vegetable rice.

Roti(Whole Wheat Chappati) with Vegetable Curry – A small roti contains about 71 calories, so if you’re a roti lover, you can enjoy 2 small roti’s with a cup of boiled vegetable curry cooked in a tsp of oil.To make curry use vegetables that are low in calories such as cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, spinach, capsicum, beans, bottle gourd, etc.

Egg Sandwich – You can have 2 slices of multigrain, sandwich bread stuffed with 2 egg whites, 3 onion slices, 2 tomato slices and a handful of fresh chopped lettuce leaf.

Brown Rice, Dal & Salad – Brown rice has many healthy benefits over white rice.It is rich in fiber and antioxidants that help in weight loss.You can enjoy 1/2 cup of brown rice, 1/2 cup of dal and a small bowl of green salad for your lunch.

Evening Snack (5:00 – 6:30PM)

Here are the 6 tasty and healthy evening snacks to satisfy your hunger for less than 100 calories.You can choose anyone from the below list.

Lemon Tea and Wheat Rusk – Wheat rusk are healthier than biscuits.Two wheat rusks contain about 85 calories and a cup of unsweetened lemon tea has only 5 calories.

Hard Boiled Egg and Green Tea – A protein boost in the evening can assist in weight loss.A hard boiled egg with a cup of unsweetened green tea contains around 85 calories.

Nuts – are an excellent source of energy and nutrition.Nuts like almonds, pistachios and walnuts are the best choices for losing weight.You can have 12 almonds (85 calories) or 7 walnut halves  ( 95 calories) or 20 pistachios (80 calories) to control your evening hunger.

Momo(Dumpling) – Steamed vegetable momo is a tasty and healthy way to keep your appetite in control.A small vegetable momo contains around 30 calories, so you can enjoy few dumplings without exceeding the 100 calorie line.

Orange Juice – Orange juice is the healthy way of getting your vitamin C and keeping calories under control.A glass of fresh orange juice just contains about 90 calories.

Grilled Brown Bread Sandwich – This is another tasty evening snack for your hungry tummy.Half grilled brown bread sandwich stuffed with some onion, capsicum, tomato, lettuce, corn, and spinach contains around 90 calories.

Dinner Time (8:00 – 9:30PM)

Dinner should be light and under 250 calories.

Homemade Whole Wheat Vegetable Wrap – Vegetarian wraps made with whole wheat makes a delicious, healthy and low-calorie formula for dinner.For stuffing use cabbage, low-fat paneer, carrot, onion, beans, and tomatoes.

Chicken Noodle Soup – A hot bowl of chicken noodle soup makes a perfect, stomach satisfying dinner.A cup of homemade chicken noodle soup simply contains around 150 calories.

Roti(Chapati) and Boiled Chicken/Soya Curry/Vegetable Curry – You can have 2 small-sized whole wheat chapati with 1/2 cup of soya bean curry or 1/2 cup of chicken curry or vegetable curry cooked in a tbsp of oil.

Bedtime Fat Burning Drink 

A glass of warm water before bedtime can help us sleep better and lose weight simultaneously.It flushes out toxins while you sleep, relax muscles, rehydrates your body, aids better digestion of food and melts down body fat.

Make sure to drink at least 9-10 glasses of water in a day to lose weight.

Exercises to Lose Weight 10 Kgs

Apart from following this low-calorie diet plan, it is important to have 15-minute of sound exercise daily to accelerate the weight loss process.For best results follow any one of the exercises in the morning after having the detox drink.

1.Rope Skipping & Jogging

Skipping rope is an easy way to lose weight from your entire body.Jogging is incredibly good for the heart and mind.It improves blood circulation in the body, reduces cholesterol and supports a healthy weight loss.This combination is best for those who wants to lose fat from the lower body.

Do Rope Skipping (5 minutes) + Jogging (10 minutes)

2.Abdominal Crunch & Abdominal Leg Raise (Single & Double)

Toned legs, But flabby stomach? Then this workout is definitely for you.Abdominal crunch burns excess fat from your belly and strengthens your core.

Do Abdominal Crunches (2 sets of 15 reps) + Abdominal Single Raise (2 sets of 10 reps each leg) + Abdominal Double Raise (2 sets of 10 reps).

Also, Check Out How to lose Weight 10 Kgs in a Month without Diet & Exercise

3.Mountain Climbers & Squats

Mountain climbers and squats are the best exercises to burn more calories in less time.

Mountain climbers (3 sets of 10 reps) + Squats (2 sets of 10 reps each leg).

4.Surya Namaskar (Sun Salutation) 

Surya Namaskar is an ancient and healthy to lose weight.It adds more flexibility to the body, improves blood circulation and boosts the weight loss process.A single round of Surya Namaskar comprises a sequence of 12 yoga postures.

Do a total of 5-7 rounds of Surya Namaskar daily.

5.Kapalbhati Yoga & Walking

Kapalbhati yoga is an ultimate way to lose weight without putting a lot of effort and time.It is a simple breathing exercise to release stress, detoxify and relax the body, lower cholesterol and to lose weight naturally and control obesity.

Do Kapalbhati Yoga for 300 Counts + 5 minutes of Walking.

www.thebeautymadness.com
1. Introduction

Cardio-metabolic disease, namely ischemic heart disease, stroke, obesity, and type 2 diabetes, represent substantial health and economic burdens . Suboptimal nutrition is a leading contributor to chronic disease and premature death in the United States and worldwide . According to a recent analysis, certain dietary factors, including high intakes of sodium and processed meat products and low intakes of fruits and vegetables, were associated with 45.5% of cardio-metabolic deaths in the United States .

In this review, we present evidence that plant-based diets (for the purposes of this paper, “plant-based” will serve as a substitution for vegetarian and vegan diets only) may be an effective strategy for improving nutrient intake . Plant-based diets are associated with decreased all-cause mortality and decreased risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and coronary heart disease .

Plant-based diets are characterized by a reduction or elimination of animal product consumption. They are typically based on the consumption of grains, legumes, vegetables, fruits, and nuts. Vegan diets contain only plant foods, while lacto-ovo-vegetarian diets include dairy and/or egg products.

In this narrative review, we summarize the most recent findings on the effect of plant-based diets on cardio-metabolic disease risk. For each section, we searched for papers with the following key words: plant-based, vegetarian and vegan, giving special attention to systematic reviews and meta-analyses, particularly those drawing on randomized clinical trials. Findings from observational studies were included as supporting evidence.

2. Plant-Based Diets and Cardiovascular Disease

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality, accounting for one in four deaths worldwide . The high prevalence of heart disease has been linked to lifestyle factors, namely smoking, the adoption of diets high in animal fat and refined foods, and a lack of exercise .

A low-fat, vegetarian diet is the only dietary pattern to have shown cessation and reversal of atherosclerotic plaque in clinical trials , when combined with exercise and stress management . Vegetarian diets are associated with a reduced risk for cardiovascular disease in general , including a reduced risk for ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease . Risk factors associated with heart disease are also less frequent among those following vegetarian diets . In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study, vegetarians had a 32% lower risk of developing coronary heart disease, compared with non-vegetarians .

In a systematic review and meta-analysis of 8 prospective studies among Seventh-day Adventists, vegetarian diets were associated with a 40% reduced risk of coronary heart disease events and a 29% reduction in cerebral vascular disease events, compared with non-vegetarians . A recent systematic review and meta-analysis of 86 cross-sectional and 10 cohort prospective studies reported a significant protective effect of a vegetarian diet against the incidence and/or mortality from ischemic heart disease. The observed risk reduction, compared with non-vegetarian dietary patterns, was 25% .

In summary, strong and consistent evidence from randomized clinical trials and observational studies supports beneficial effects of plant-based diets for cardiovascular disease.

3. Plant-Based Diets, Body Weight, and Metabolic Syndrome

The prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing worldwide. The World Health Organization estimates that more than 1.3 billion adults worldwide are overweight, and a further 600 million are obese . Overweight and obesity are associated with higher all-cause mortality .

Vegetarians typically have lower BMI (body mass index) values, compared with non-vegetarians . BMI values tend to increase with increasing frequency of animal product consumption. In the Adventist Health Study-2, BMIs were lowest among vegans (23.6 kg/m

2

), higher in lacto-ovo-vegetarians (25.7 kg/m

2

), and highest in nonvegetarians (28.8 kg/m

2

) . The average individual yearly weight gain is reduced when people limit consumption of animal foods . Vegetarian diets seem to increase resting energy expenditure , which may be partly responsible for the lower BMI values in vegetarians.

Plant-based diets have been shown to be a particularly effective dietary approach for weight loss . A recent study showed a mean BMI reduction of 4.4 kg/m

2

with a 6-month, whole-food, plant-based diet with no energy restrictions, compared with usual care (0.4 kg/m

2

), in overweight or obese subjects .

In a meta-analysis of randomized trials by Huang et al., plant-based diets were associated with a mean weight reduction of −2.02 kg (95% confidence intervals (CI), −2.8 to −1.23 kg). A vegan diet had a more pronounced effect (−2.52 kg; 95% CI, −3.02 to −1.98 kg) than a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet (−1.48 kg; 95% CI, −3.43 to 0.47 kg) . Similarly, a meta-analysis of 15 clinical trials using vegetarian or vegan diets showed an average weight loss range of 4.6 kg among study completers .

Plant-based diets appear to reduce the risk of developing metabolic syndrome by about one half . They reduce the risk of individual components of the metabolic syndrome (except for low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol) and are associated with lower waist circumference , lower concentrations of triglycerides, total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol , blood sugar, and blood pressure .

Two recent meta-analyses of randomized clinical trials showed a benefit of plant-based diets for body weight. This is supported by the observational studies.

4. Plant-Based Diets and Glycemic Control

The prevalence of type 2 diabetes has been increasing worldwide. An estimated 382 million adults worldwide had diabetes in 2013; this number is expected to rise to 592 million by 2035 . The economic burden associated with diabetes (both diagnosed and undiagnosed) exceeded $322 billion in 2012 in the United States . Therefore, interventions to prevent and manage type 2 diabetes and its complications are desirable.

Diabetes prevalence has been found to be the lowest among vegans (Odds ratio (OR) 0.51; 95% CI 0.40–0.66) and lacto-ovo-vegetarians (OR 0.54; 95% CI 0.49–0.60), compared with non-vegetarians . Diabetes incidence has also been observed to be the lowest in vegans (OR 0.381; 95% CI 0.236–0.617), lacto-ovo vegetarians (OR 0.618; 95% CI 0.503–0.760) and semi-vegetarians (OR 0.486, 95% CI 0.312–0.755). They all had a lower risk of diabetes than non-vegetarians .

Vegetarian diets have been shown to be helpful not only in prevention but also in the treatment of type 2 diabetes in several clinical trials. Early studies reported a dramatic reduction in the use of glucose-lowering medications and in plasma glucose levels, in response to a plant-based diet combined with exercise . A 2014 meta-analysis found that a plant-based diet significantly improves blood sugar control in type 2 diabetes. The benefit of omitting meat, cheese, and eggs was as much as 0.7 points in some studies, and averaged about 0.4 points overall .

Even without exercise, beneficial effects of vegetarian diets included reduced body weight, better glycemic control, and lower blood lipids, compared with more conventional diets in treatment of type 2 diabetes—vegetarian diets being almost twice as effective .

In a long-term intervention study, the positive effects of a vegetarian diet (compared to a conventional reduced-energy diet) were partially preserved one year after the end of the intervention, although the patients did not continue with their originally assigned diets and consumed a comparable diet during that year . A 2007 study showed that overweight participants following a low-fat, vegan diet were able to lose weight and keep most of it off after two years, more so than those following a diet based on the National Cholesterol Education Program guidelines .

Management of glycemic control is one of the cornerstones of diabetes care . It has been well established that improved glycemic control reduces the risk of microvascular complications, whereas the role of glycemic control in reducing macrovascular complications is less clear.

Most observational studies have demonstrated a positive association between poor glucose control and the risk of cardiovascular disease . Patients with HbA1c (glycated hemoglobin) concentrations of 6.0–6.9% had 20% lower relative risk of fatal/nonfatal coronary heart disease than patients with HbA1c concentrations of 7.0–7.9%. Limited data from four large, randomized, controlled trials and their follow-ups also suggest that chronic hyperglycemia is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes . Meta-analyses of these trials demonstrated significantly reduced risks of fatal/nonfatal myocardial infarction (15%) and cardiovascular disease (11–15%) with HbA1c reductions of approximately 1 absolute percentage point .

A recent meta-analysis of six randomized controlled trials showed that consumption of vegetarian diets was associated with a significant reduction in HbA1c by 0.4 absolute percentage points, compared with conventional diets in patients with type 2 diabetes . This reduction in HbA1c alone (i.e., independently from improvements in body weight, blood lipids, blood pressure, platelet aggregation, and other variables) would be expected to decrease risks of myocardial infarction and cardiovascular disease by about 6% and 4.4–6%, respectively, based on estimates drawn from large prospective studies. Other healthful lifestyle factors add further reduction in risk.

One of the mechanisms that is likely responsible for improved glycemic control is increased insulin sensitivity in response to plant-based diets demonstrated in controlled trials . It has also been demonstrated that partial replacement of meat with soy products increased insulin sensitivity in a randomized crossover trial .

Another potential mechanism responsible for improved glycemic control is improved gastrointestinal hormone response. Gastrointestinal hormones, especially the incretins, play an important role in postprandial increase in plasma insulin . In patients with type 2 diabetes, the incretin effect is diminished , and it seems to be influenced by diet composition. Consumption of processed meat, for example, leads to impaired release of gastrointestinal hormones, including the incretins both in a fasting state and after a meal compared with an isocaloric vegan meal . These results suggest that vegetarian diets may be beneficial for improvement in gastrointestinal hormone release in patients with type 2 diabetes.

In summary, the evidence for the beneficial effects of plant-based diets on glycemic control comes from six randomized controlled trials, summarized in a recent meta-analysis, as well as observational studies. Although the number of studies on this topic is limited, the concordance of results across studies is compelling.

5. Plant-Based Diets and Blood Pressure

It has been estimated that 874 million adults worldwide have a systolic blood pressure of 140 mm Hg or higher. In an analysis of data from 844 population-based studies in 154 countries between 1990 and 2015, 14% of all deaths and 143 million life-years of disability were attributable to hypertension .

In the United States, hypertension is associated with several leading causes of death, including heart disease, cancer, stroke, and diabetes . Each 20 mm Hg increase in systolic blood pressure or each 10 mm Hg increase in diastolic blood pressure more than doubles the risk of death from stroke . Conversely, a reduction of 5 mm Hg in systolic blood pressure leads to a 7 percent reduced risk of all-cause mortality, a 9 percent reduced risk of heart disease, and a 14 percent reduced risk of stroke . High protein intake, especially from meat, increases blood pressure . High potassium intake, however, lowers blood pressure among people with hypertension . This may also be relevant in childhood in order to prevent hypertension in adulthood . Vegetarian diets typically have higher fiber and potassium and lower fat, compared with omnivorous diets .

A meta-analysis of 7 randomized controlled trials and 32 observational studies found that vegetarian diets lower blood pressure (both systolic and diastolic), compared with omnivorous diets. In observational studies, vegetarian diets were associated with blood pressure readings that were, on average, 6.9 mm Hg and 4.7 mm Hg lower for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively. In randomized controlled trials, vegetarian diets decreased both systolic and diastolic blood pressure by 4.8 and 2.2 mm Hg, respectively . The blood pressure reduction was independent of salt intake, overweight, and exercise levels. The reduction in systolic blood pressure by 5 mm Hg is estimated to result in a 7% reduction in all-cause mortality, a 9% reduction in mortality due to coronary heart disease, and a 14% reduction in mortality due to stroke .

In summary, a recent meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials and observational studies showed clear benefits of plant-based diets for blood pressure. Given the consistent results between the studies, the evidence is strong.

6. Plant-Based Diets and Blood Lipids

Epidemiological studies have shown a high prevalence of hypercholesterolemia in Western countries (more than 50% adults have total cholesterol serum levels higher than 5 mmol/L), along with the high incidence of cardiovascular disease and related deaths . Data from clinical studies indicate that for every 1% reduction in LDL-cholesterol, the risk for a major cardiac event, including heart attack and stroke, is reduced by approximately 1% . Since lifestyle changes (especially diet and exercise) can lower LDL levels by 30–40% in people with or at risk for heart disease, reducing LDL-cholesterol to lower targets can play a significant role in disease prevention and possibly treatment .

Saturated fat increases plasma LDL cholesterol concentrations. According to a report published by the American Heart Association, replacing saturated fat in the diet and replacing it with polyunsaturated vegetable oil can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease by about 30%, similar to the effect of statins. The authors concluded that the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) would decrease with such a dietary shift .

The effect of dietary cholesterol on plasma cholesterol concentrations is less pronounced than that of saturated fat. Nonetheless, a recent meta-analysis confirmed the longstanding observation that dietary cholesterol increases serum total and LDL-cholesterol concentrations . Dietary cholesterol is found only in animal products including meat, dairy, and eggs. A meat-free diet can lead to a significant reduction in total and LDL cholesterol, which corresponded with about a 10% reduced risk of heart disease, according to a meta-analysis of randomized-controlled trials published by the American Heart Association .

Vegetarian and especially vegan dietary patterns improve both fasting and postprandial blood lipids compared with conventional therapeutic diets , with effects similar to those seen with statin therapy . If combined with moderate physical exercise, smoking cessation and stress management, the reduction of blood lipids can be even higher .

In summary, the findings of interventional trials are in accordance with those of observational studies, and the evidence for improved blood lipid profiles in response to plant-based diets is strong.

7. Plant-Based Diets and Platelet Aggregation

Enhanced platelet adhesion, activation, and aggregation increase the risk of ischemic stroke. In addition, insulin resistance plays a role in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke by encouraging atherosclerotic changes. Clinical studies have suggested that improving insulin resistance may be an effective way how to prevent or delay ischemic stroke .

Both platelet aggregation and insulin resistance are influenced by diet choices. Plant-based diets have been shown to reduce insulin resistance , as well as to reduce platelet aggregation and thus reduce cardiovascular risk . Plant foods with low glycemic index like whole grains, vegetables, nuts, legumes, garlic, ginger, onion, purple grape juice, tomatoes, berries, and dark chocolate, are particularly efficient in reducing platelet aggregation .

Because of the paucity of studies examining the effect of plant-based diets on platelet aggregation, the evidence for its beneficial effects is limited.

8. Potential Mechanisms Responsible for Benefits Associated with Plant-Based Diets

Several possible mechanisms may explain the beneficial cardio-metabolic effects of plant-based diets: lower caloric intake, increased intake of fiber, reduced intake of saturated fat and cholesterol, higher intake of polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, increased intake of antioxidants and micronutrients, higher intake of vegetable protein, and a higher intake of plant sterols.

A reduction in energy intake due to the lower energy density of plant foods has been shown to yield cardio-metabolic benefits even before any changes in body weight occur .

The ideal percentage carbohydrate, protein, and fat in the diet is a subject of ongoing discussion and debate. Plant-based diets used in the treatment of cardio-metabolic disease in clinical trials are typically high in complex carbohydrates . A low-carbohydrate vegan (“Eco-Atkins”) diet has also been shown to decrease body weight and cardio-metabolic risk factors . However, a recent systematic review and meta-analysis of low-carbohydrate diets has not shown any superiority of these diets in the long term in terms of glycemic control, weight, or blood lipids . Therefore, macronutrient distribution should be based on individualized assessment of current eating patterns, preferences, and metabolic goals . Reducing the intake of saturated fat and added sugars while increasing the intake of fiber and complex carbohydrates seems to be a reasonable approach .

Fiber contributes to bulk in the diet without adding digestible calories, thus leading to satiety and weight loss. Additionally, soluble fiber binds with bile acids in the small intestines, increasing fecal bile salt excretion and thus reducing cholesterol , and reduces blood lipids and blood glucose. High fiber consumption has been linked to reduced body weight, lower blood pressure and blood lipids, reduced plaque formation and cardiovascular risk, and lower risk of type 2 diabetes . Plant-based diets are also lower in saturated fat and dietary cholesterol. Replacing saturated fat with polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fat has been shown to decrease insulin sensitivity and reduce cardio-metabolic risk, independent of changes in body weight .

Vegetable proteins reduce the concentrations of blood lipids , reduce the risk of obesity and cardiovascular disease, and may have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects . High intake of antioxidants and micronutrients from whole plant foods represents another potential cardio-metabolic beneficial mechanism . Plant sterols that have a structure similar to that of cholesterol reduce the cardiovascular risk and mortality , have anti-inflammatory effects, and positively affect coagulation, platelet function, and endothelial function , as well as glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes .

It appears that plant-based diets exert cardio-metabolic benefits via several independent mechanisms. When eating all whole plant foods, the synergistic effect may be greater than a mere additional effect of eating isolated nutrients.

9. Ensuring Complete Nutrition

Certain nutrients may be less abundant in plant-based diets, compared with diets including animal products, although there is considerable variation depending on specific diet choices. These nutrients include protein, fat (particularly saturated fat), zinc, vitamin D, and vitamin B

12

. However, manifestations of deficiencies are not more common in vegetarian populations than in omnivorous populations .

Vitamin B

12

deserves special attention. It is made by neither plants nor animals but is found in animal products due to its formation by intestinal bacteria. For those following plant-based diets, B

12

-fortified products or supplements ensure that needs for this essential nutrient are met. Other populations who should take a B

12

supplement, regardless of their dietary pattern, include those who are 50 years or older, those who have digestive disorders such as Crohn’s disease that limit B

12

absorption, and those who take certain medications such as acid-blockers and metformin .

Plant-based diets merit inclusion in dietary recommendations. With guidance and support, such therapeutic diet changes are well-accepted and sustainable, as determined by data on long-term adherence and food acceptability questionnaires .

The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics states that, “…appropriately planned vegetarian, including vegan, diets are healthful, nutritionally adequate, and may provide health benefits for the prevention and treatment of certain diseases.” . “Appropriately planned” means that it is important to keep the main sources of macro- and micro-nutrients in mind, and make sure the diet supplies one’s need for all of them.

10. Conclusions

Vegetarian diets represent an effective means for the prevention and treatment of cardio-metabolic diseases.

Properly planned vegetarian diets are healthful and effective for weight and glycemic control, and provide metabolic and cardiovascular benefits, including reversing atherosclerosis and decreasing blood lipids and blood pressure. The cardio-metabolic benefits seem to be greater with vegan than lacto-ovo-vegetarian diets . The use of plant-based diets as a means of prevention and treatment of cardio-metabolic disease deserves to be promoted through dietary guidelines and recommendations.

Acknowledgments

This work was funded by Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (PCRM).

Author Contributions

H.K. and S.L. designed the structure of the paper, performed the literature search, and wrote the paper. N.B. provided funding and revised the manuscript. All authors had full access to the final version of the manuscript and gave their approval before publishing.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest related to this manuscript.

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BACKGROUND:

The role of glycemic index (GI) in appetite and body-weight regulation is still not clear.

OBJECTIVE:

The objective of the study was to investigate the long-term effects of a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet with either low glycemic index (LGI) or high glycemic index (HGI) on ad libitum energy intake, body weight, and composition, as well as on risk factors for type 2 diabetes and ischemic heart disease in overweight healthy subjects.

DESIGN:

The study was a 10-wk parallel, randomized, intervention trial with 2 matched groups. The LGI or HGI test foods, given as replacements for the subjects’ usual carbohydrate-rich foods, were equal in total energy, energy density, dietary fiber, and macronutrient composition. Subjects were 45 (LGI diet: n = 23; HGI diet: n = 22) healthy overweight women aged 20-40 y.

RESULTS:

Energy intake, mean (+/- SEM) body weight (LGI diet: -1.9 +/- 0.5 kg; HGI diet: -1.3 +/- 0.3 kg), and fat mass (LGI diet: -1.0 +/- 0.4 kg; HGI diet: -0.4 +/- 0.3 kg) decreased over time, but the differences between groups were not significant. No significant differences were observed between groups in fasting serum insulin, homeostasis model assessment for relative insulin resistance, homeostasis model assessment for beta cell function, triacylglycerol, nonesterified fatty acids, or HDL cholesterol. However, a 10% decrease in LDL cholesterol (P < 0.05) and a tendency to a larger decrease in total cholesterol (P = 0.06) were observed with consumption of the LGI diet as compared with the HGI diet.

CONCLUSIONS:

This study does not support the contention that low-fat LGI diets are more beneficial than HGI diets with regard to appetite or body-weight regulation as evaluated over 10 wk. However, it confirms previous findings of a beneficial effect of LGI diets on risk factors for ischemic heart disease.

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