Diet ducal hatch

This article is about the Finnish legislature from 1809 to 1906. For Finnish food, see

Finnish cuisine

.

The throne used by Emperor Alexander I at the Porvoo Diet in 1809. The throne has been part of the collection of the National Museum of Finland from 1919 onwards

The Diet of Finland (Finnish Suomen maapäivät, later valtiopäivät; Swedish Finlands Lantdagar), was the legislative assembly of the Grand Duchy of Finland from 1809 to 1906 and the recipient of the powers of the Swedish Riksdag of the Estates. The term valtiopäivät today means an annual session of the Parliament of Finland, the Swedish Riksdagen being the name for both the Parliament and its sessions.

Åbo Lantdag

A memorial for the meeting of the states of Finland in Helsinki in 1616

The first States of Finland were held in Helsinki in 1616. Other assemblies (Åbo lantdag) where held in Turku for example in 1676. The assembly was called together by Axel Julius De la Gardie. The estate of peasants was chaired by Heikki Heikinpoika Vaanila.

The Porvoo Diet

The sovereign’s pledge, printed in Finnish

During the Finnish War between Sweden and Russia, the four Estates of occupied Finland (Nobility, Clergy, Bourgeoisie and Peasants) were assembled at Porvoo (Borgå) by Tsar Alexander I, the new Grand Duke of Finland, between 25 March and 19 July 1809. The central event at Porvoo was the sovereign pledge and the oaths of the Estates in Porvoo Cathedral on 29 March. Each of the Estates swore their oaths of allegiance, committing themselves to accepting the Emperor and Grand Duke of Finland as the true authority, and to keeping the constitution and the form of government unchanged. Alexander I subsequently promised to govern Finland in accordance with its laws. This was thought to essentially mean that the emperor confirmed the Swedish Instrument of Government from 1772 as the constitution of Finland, although it was also interpreted to mean respecting the existing codes and statutes. The diet had required that it would be convened again after the Finnish War, which separated Finland from Sweden, had been concluded. On 17 September that year, the conflict was settled by the Treaty of Fredrikshamn, but it would be another five decades until the Finnish Estates would be called again.

The Estates convene again

The opening of the Diet in 1863

Not until June 1863, after the Crimean War had taken place, did Alexander II call the Estates again. On 18 September the opening ceremony was held and the Emperor made his declaration where he promised to introduce changes to the constitution. The changes included making the diet a regularly convening body, a promise which was kept by the Emperor when the diet convened again in January 1867, where it established an act on the working order of the diet. The diet was to convene at least every fifth year but in practice it would come to convene every third year. The act on Freedom of the Press was seen to have been rejected by the diet in 1867, and as a consequence censorship was introduced. The diets of the 1860s created a working and regularly convening Finnish parliament, but it also spelled an end to further promised constitutional reforms.

In the elections for the diet of 1872, members of the two language-based parties, the Fennomans and Svecomans, gained more ground at the expense of the liberals. After the assassination of Alexander II the special position of Finland in the Russian empire was in danger. Alexander III announced that the Finnish monetary, customs and postal systems were to be incorporated into their imperial counterparts. At the diet of 1882 the Governor-General gave the Emperors announcement that the diet would have the right to submit bills, but he would be the only one to initiate changes regarding the constitution and military issues.

The first period of oppression

In 1899 Grand Duke Nicholas II signed what came to be known as the February Manifesto. The powers of the diet regarding Finland’s internal affairs were weakened and transferred to the Russian ministers. The legal committee of the diet of 1899 adopted the opinion that the manifesto was not legally valid in Finland.

Reform

The unrest during the Russo-Japanese War resulted in a general strike in Finland in October 1905. The most immediate result was the Emperor’s manifesto that cancelled all illegal regulations. A parliament based on universal and equal suffrage was also promised. An extraordinary session of the diet in December 1905 was called to implement the parliamentary reforms. The proposal was presented to the Emperor on 15 March 1906 and after his approval it was submitted to the estates on 9 May. The reforms came to force on 1 October 1906. The diet was reformed from a legislative assembly of four Estates into a unicameral parliament of 200 members. At the same time universal suffrage was introduced, which gave all men and women, 24 years or older, the right to vote and stand for election. Acts on the right of parliament to monitor members of the government, on the Freedom of Speech, Assembly and Association, and Freedom of the Press were also introduced. These reforms established the hallmarks of today’s Parliament of Finland. The first election to the new parliament was arranged in 1907.

Composition in 1869–1906

From 1869 to 1906 the Diet of Finland was composed as follows:

  • Nobility: 201 seats; the heads of noble families had the right to sit in person or name a family member as a representative.
  • Clergy: 40 seats; included bishops, priests elected from each bishopric, university personnel and other senior teachers who elected their representatives.
  • Bourgeoisie: 30–70 seats; these were the representatives of the people living in cities, only men with taxable wealth were eligible to vote. The number of seats rose when the population of the cities grew.
  • Peasants: 70 seats; elected through indirect election in which only peasants that owned their own land (4.5% of the rural population in early 1900s) could vote. Each district sent a representative, which was locally elected by electors, wherein each municipality could send at least one elector.

All chambers debated separately. Ordinarily there were no joint sessions, and while it was possible to arrange a joint debating session where voting was however not permitted, such sessions were only arranged twice in the history of the Diet. Three chambers had to pass the bill before it could be approved by the Emperor. However, consensus was sought in joint committees, and in case of disagreements, a committee was set to reconcile the differences between the versions passed by different chambers. Any bill affecting the privileges of an estate could be passed only with the consent of that estate. All four chambers had to agree in order to modify constitutional laws.

Sessions and meeting places of the Diet

List of sessions of the Finnish diet.

  • 1809 (January to July);
  • 1863–1864 (September 1863 to April 1864);
  • 1867 (January to May);
  • 1872 (February to June);
  • 1877–1878; (January 1877 to January 1878);
  • 1882 (January to June);
  • 1885 (January to May);
  • 1888 (January to May);
  • 1891 (January to May);
  • 1894 (January to June);
  • 1897 (January to June);
  • 1899 (January to May);
  • 1900 (January to June);
  • 1904–1905 (December 1904 to April 1905);
  • 1906 (January to September);

The Diet of Finland, and the four estates of which it was composed, met in a number of different locations during its existence. In the 1860s, all the estates met in the Finnish House of Nobility. Whilst the Nobility of Finland continued to meet there until 1906, the three commoner estates later met in other locations, such as in 1888, when they met in the new building of the Ateneum Art Museum. From 1891 until the parliamentary reform of 1906 the three commoner estates of Clergy, Bourgeoisie and Peasants met in the newly built House of the Estates (Finnish Säätytalo, Swedish Ständerhuset). However, the meeting rooms of the house were too small for the 200-member unicameral parliament. The house has since seen sporadic use by the state and regular use by scientific and scholarly organizations.

Diets and Speakers

See also

  • Lantmarskalks of the Finnish House of Nobility
  • Parliament of Finland
  • Senate of Finland
  • Governor-General of Finland
  • Finnish nobility
  • Finnish House of Nobility
  • Tetracameralism
  • Multicameralism
  • in the Finnish-language Wikipedia

References

External links

  • History of the Finnish Parliament – Official site
  • Kejsarens tal vid lantdagens avslutande den 19 juli 1809 – in Swedish at Wikisource (Originally in French)
  • Comparison between Diet of Finland and Parliament of Finland (in Finnish)

en.wikipedia.org

russian steps are really a version of intervals; eg: 30s of effort then 30s of recovery, then 60/60, 90/90, 120/120, 90/90, etc.

But when climbing hard climbs I do 5 revs seated and then 5 standing, then 10/10, 15/15, 20/20, 25/25, 20/20, 15/15…… and repeat as long as necessary until you’re there.

It’s harder work climbing standing, particularly if like today your standing is very low cadence, but concentrating on getting through the intervals is better than thinking about how hard it is.

As for climbing seated. It is supposedly easier as you don’t have to support your body weight at the same time, but I don’t have the same leg strength in the seated muscle groups as I do standing (that SS background again) hence if I want to climb ‘fast’ then it’s standing and full gas, sitting and spinning is for saving energy. And sometimes it’s all I have to be able to keep the pedals moving…..

singletrackworld.com
Are you searching for better health? You have come to the right place!
​​DISCOVER – ACHIEVE – SUSTAIN

“I believe, with mindful attention to body-mind-spirit, and a practice of self-compassion and gratitude, we are all empowered to discover the body’s innate ability for healing and balance.”  ~ Lynn Hatch, RN, MSN, NP, CHWC

To learn more about the LYNN HATCH WELNESS     innovative approach to healthy living … click here    Drink Water! Tips & Recipes:Fruit & Herb Flavored H2O

It’s summer. Things are heating up. Are you drinking enough water? Most of us are aware of the importance of drinking enough water. Getting our daily dose of water helps our organs perform their functions, keeps our skin clear and hydrated, and allows physical action in our bodies to flow smoothly. Even with this knowledge, it can still be challenging to drink all the water our bodies deserve daily. In the summer…Read More…

Having a human moment.

Consider: you have messed up or you are being challenged by something outside of your control; imagine what would be possible for you if:- You are treated with kindness … Read More…

Love & Connection
Valentines Day is just around the corner. For some, it is all about Cupid and that special someone. For others, there is a sense of dread or lacking if we are not involved in an intimate relationship. The truth is … Read more… 2016 Healthier you resolution off course? The one thing to get you back on the road. Now that the new year is under way, ​you may find your resolve to live a more healthful life waning. Resolutions become difficult to carry on past the initial enthusiasm. Motivation starts losing steam. Read more…3 Easy Ways to Bring Joy to Holiday Eating Without Denial or Deprivation. This blog post was inspired by a client of mine who was struggling  with all the holiday sweet treats. If this sounds familiar give  these tips a try. Read more…Comfort FoodsCold weather brings cravings for warm comfort foods.
Here is a great soup recipe that fits the bill for a warm, grounding, comfort food without an increase in fat consumption like a lot of other comfort foods might. Read more…7 Time-Saving Money-Saving Dinner Shortcuts We are all so busy these days that we need as many shortcuts as we can possibly find for getting a good home-cooked meal on the table with the minimum amount of stress! It’s no good to find yourself at the end of a crazy day standing in front of the fridge praying for inspiration…
​Read moreWhen Life Goes Into OverdriveTransition time is here. Labor Day has come and gone. A new school year has begun. Even if you are not a student, teacher, or have kids going back to school we all feel the change. Read more…One Simple Step: Achieving and Maintaining an ideal body weight that is right for you.Ever wonder how health and fitness professionals manage their optimum wellness? I was curious about this too. Read more…3 Practical Steps to Ease into Healthy EatingI hope you were inspired by last month’s post to move forward with your own personal healthy living goals. Here are three steps to help you with the nutrition side of things. Read more…10 Ways to Reclaim Your Energy & Vitality: One Woman’s JourneyMy sister-in-law, at age 62, has lost 35 pounds in the last year. She says, “If I can do it anyone can do it!”. What is the secret to  her success?  Read more…15 FOODS THAT FIGHT INFLAMMATIONIt is the season of allergies, spring seasonal allergies. Do any of these symptoms sound familiar: sneezing; itchy, watery eyes; runny nose; or as the health care providers say, allergic rhinitis? When I moved to DC I was told I had moved into the allergy capital of the nation. A veritable haven for allergy doctors. So what is going on with all the sniffles? Read more…Let’s get real! A mea culpa from a health coach.OK, I admit it. I struggle with my weight. I struggle with my relationship with food. You might even say I have a tendency toward disordered eating. Read more…Two Quick Tips: Mindfulness Anytime and AnywhereMINDFULNESS: “PAYING ATTENTION, ON PURPOSE, IN THE PRESENT MOMENT, NON-JUDGMENTALLY” – Jon Kabat-ZinnHave you noticed the word mindfulness seems to be everywhere these days? What exactly is mindfulness? First and foremost it is a quality we all possess. Read more…STRENGTHENING YOUR RESILIENCEAnyone can build the skills necessary to manage life’s challenges. The qualities of resilience can be strengthened in how we think and what we do. Everyone is capable of developing her or his own person brand of resilience.Read more…One Smart Tip for a Healthy New Year and Always.Let’s state the obvious. The New Year is officially here. Welcome 2015.
If you are like most of us, you are using the change in the calendar to reset something in your life. The majority of folks choose losing weight. What you probably already know is that the resolve often disappears come February first. Here is a little tip to help maintain your resolution. Read more…FIVE EASY WAYS To KEEP YOUR SANITY DURING THE HOLIDAYSStart with SEVEN hours of sleep.
Research shows that feeling well, having energy, and being at the top of our game hinge on a good night’s sleep. Without it, our stress hormones wreak havoc with our body, creating inflammation and suppressing the immune system. We tend to overeat when we are tired. Patience eludes us, irritability overtakes our sensibilities, and the least little thing sets us off. The joy of the season quickly evaporates. Make this non-negotiable. Carve out the seven hours first, then fill in everything else around it. If you only do one of these things, this should be it. Pleasant dreams!Read more…Attitude of Gratitude: 3 Quick Steps There is an old saying:
“If you have forgotten the language of gratitude you will never be on speaking terms with happiness.”
Thanksgiving is right around the corner. It is a special day set aside to count our blessings. However, in our culture it is the harbinger of a time of year filled with stress and unmeet expectations. Ouch!Read more…A DOZEN WAYS TO REDUCE SUGAR CRAVINGSOk folks, we are moving into the season of “eating”. It starts with Halloween, a mere three weeks away, and doesn’t let up until January first. How do you cope with it all? Do you just throw up your hands and indulge with abandon and deal with self recriminations come January first? Or, do you put up with the denial and deprivation of not giving in? Either way….Read more…

www.lynnhatch.com

We ask the creator of the “No-Diet” diet to explain how changing your thinking is the key to shedding kilos.

The “no-diet” diet, as featured in Esther Blum’s book, Eat, Drink, And Be Gorgeous (Hardie Grant) has already earned the confidence of many celebrities, including Sarah Jessica Parker, Sharon Stone and Teri Hatcher, and is now becoming the hottest thing in the US. Instead of punishing eating and exercise regimes, the “no-diet” diet encourages women to eat and drink whatever they want. There are no diet plans to follow, no foods to avoid and no kilojoule counting. The “no-diet” diet is all about freeing you up to enjoy eating and drinking while still getting the results you want. Follow these five steps to find out how.

Take back the control

“It’s time to stop the insanity,” says Blum. “We’ve become so used to following strict diets that we’ve lost the ability to make our own eating and drinking decisions, so throw away your diet books and wipe the slate clean.

“Learn to trust your own judgment. We don’t need other people to define our hungers and appetites. We know what our bodies need. We can create our own rules and we do not need others to tell us what to do. We simply need to allow ourselves the time and space when we do eat to acknowledge when we’ve had enough.”

Fill up on fun

“A healthy lifestyle has to be as enjoyable as possible,” says Blum. “If you approach eating and exercise with passion and creative energy, you carry that enthusiasm across all realms of your life. So forget pounding the treadmill when what you’d really like to do is dance.”

And on the “no-diet” diet the same rules apply to food. Blum believes food is one of life’s greatest pleasures and is there to be enjoyed. “Try new things,” she says. “Eat a greater variety of different foods and give yourself permission to eat whatever you want. This may sound dangerous, but in doing so we empower ourselves to have control over what we eat rather then letting the food control us!

“Suddenly the fear of ‘I’ll never be satisfied’ gets replaced with ‘That’s all I need for now and I can always have more’. “Similarly, when we allow ourselves to have anything in moderation, food begins to lose its power over us and we find those foods we always craved are no longer as irresistible.”

Don’t play the shame game

Years of strict diets and books listing all the “good” and “bad” foods have left many of us experiencing feelings of guilt around food. But Blum believes “guilty eating” is like carrying around a sack of bricks.

“It feels far better when you put it down! Lighten up on yourself because, as soon as you do, your body begins to lighten up, too. Eating a healthy diet isn’t about perfection; it’s about progress and fostering an empowered relationship with food and exercise.”

Understand why you eat

“When you want to eat and you’re not hungry, ask yourself, ‘What’s really going on here?’ Keep a food diary for five to seven days. Track your hunger levels before and after eating and write down how you were feeling when you ate. Soon you’ll notice when you are eating to satisfy an emotional need rather than a physiological one.

“Address the real reasons for any emotional eating you may be doing and, if necessary, put other, non-food rewards in place, such as having a bubble bath, going for a walk or calling a friend.”

Veg out and curb your carbs

While Blum doesn’t advocate strict eating regimes, she does recommend making a few slight alterations to what is considered best nutritional practice at the moment. Current healthy eating guidelines still advocate a diet based on carbohydrates; they don’t, however, differentiate between processed and unprocessed carbs.

Blum believes this is a mistake and that to maximise our intake of essential vitamins, minerals and fibre we should focus on choosing unprocessed carbohydrates, such as beans, pulses, corn, brown rice and root vegetables, over processed ones such as pasta, white rice, cereals, noodles and breads.

www.bodyandsoul.com.au

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *