This article is about the Finnish legislature from 1809 to 1906. For Finnish food, see
The throne used by Emperor Alexander I at the Porvoo Diet in 1809. The throne has been part of the collection of the National Museum of Finland from 1919 onwards
The Diet of Finland (Finnish Suomen maapäivät, later valtiopäivät; Swedish Finlands Lantdagar), was the legislative assembly of the Grand Duchy of Finland from 1809 to 1906 and the recipient of the powers of the Swedish Riksdag of the Estates. The term valtiopäivät today means an annual session of the Parliament of Finland, the Swedish Riksdagen being the name for both the Parliament and its sessions.
A memorial for the meeting of the states of Finland in Helsinki in 1616
The first States of Finland were held in Helsinki in 1616. Other assemblies (Åbo lantdag) where held in Turku for example in 1676. The assembly was called together by Axel Julius De la Gardie. The estate of peasants was chaired by Heikki Heikinpoika Vaanila.
The Porvoo Diet
The sovereign’s pledge, printed in Finnish
During the Finnish War between Sweden and Russia, the four Estates of occupied Finland (Nobility, Clergy, Bourgeoisie and Peasants) were assembled at Porvoo (Borgå) by Tsar Alexander I, the new Grand Duke of Finland, between 25 March and 19 July 1809. The central event at Porvoo was the sovereign pledge and the oaths of the Estates in Porvoo Cathedral on 29 March. Each of the Estates swore their oaths of allegiance, committing themselves to accepting the Emperor and Grand Duke of Finland as the true authority, and to keeping the constitution and the form of government unchanged. Alexander I subsequently promised to govern Finland in accordance with its laws. This was thought to essentially mean that the emperor confirmed the Swedish Instrument of Government from 1772 as the constitution of Finland, although it was also interpreted to mean respecting the existing codes and statutes. The diet had required that it would be convened again after the Finnish War, which separated Finland from Sweden, had been concluded. On 17 September that year, the conflict was settled by the Treaty of Fredrikshamn, but it would be another five decades until the Finnish Estates would be called again.
The Estates convene again
The opening of the Diet in 1863
Not until June 1863, after the Crimean War had taken place, did Alexander II call the Estates again. On 18 September the opening ceremony was held and the Emperor made his declaration where he promised to introduce changes to the constitution. The changes included making the diet a regularly convening body, a promise which was kept by the Emperor when the diet convened again in January 1867, where it established an act on the working order of the diet. The diet was to convene at least every fifth year but in practice it would come to convene every third year. The act on Freedom of the Press was seen to have been rejected by the diet in 1867, and as a consequence censorship was introduced. The diets of the 1860s created a working and regularly convening Finnish parliament, but it also spelled an end to further promised constitutional reforms.
In the elections for the diet of 1872, members of the two language-based parties, the Fennomans and Svecomans, gained more ground at the expense of the liberals. After the assassination of Alexander II the special position of Finland in the Russian empire was in danger. Alexander III announced that the Finnish monetary, customs and postal systems were to be incorporated into their imperial counterparts. At the diet of 1882 the Governor-General gave the Emperors announcement that the diet would have the right to submit bills, but he would be the only one to initiate changes regarding the constitution and military issues.
The first period of oppression
In 1899 Grand Duke Nicholas II signed what came to be known as the February Manifesto. The powers of the diet regarding Finland’s internal affairs were weakened and transferred to the Russian ministers. The legal committee of the diet of 1899 adopted the opinion that the manifesto was not legally valid in Finland.
The unrest during the Russo-Japanese War resulted in a general strike in Finland in October 1905. The most immediate result was the Emperor’s manifesto that cancelled all illegal regulations. A parliament based on universal and equal suffrage was also promised. An extraordinary session of the diet in December 1905 was called to implement the parliamentary reforms. The proposal was presented to the Emperor on 15 March 1906 and after his approval it was submitted to the estates on 9 May. The reforms came to force on 1 October 1906. The diet was reformed from a legislative assembly of four Estates into a unicameral parliament of 200 members. At the same time universal suffrage was introduced, which gave all men and women, 24 years or older, the right to vote and stand for election. Acts on the right of parliament to monitor members of the government, on the Freedom of Speech, Assembly and Association, and Freedom of the Press were also introduced. These reforms established the hallmarks of today’s Parliament of Finland. The first election to the new parliament was arranged in 1907.
Composition in 1869–1906
From 1869 to 1906 the Diet of Finland was composed as follows:
- Nobility: 201 seats; the heads of noble families had the right to sit in person or name a family member as a representative.
- Clergy: 40 seats; included bishops, priests elected from each bishopric, university personnel and other senior teachers who elected their representatives.
- Bourgeoisie: 30–70 seats; these were the representatives of the people living in cities, only men with taxable wealth were eligible to vote. The number of seats rose when the population of the cities grew.
- Peasants: 70 seats; elected through indirect election in which only peasants that owned their own land (4.5% of the rural population in early 1900s) could vote. Each district sent a representative, which was locally elected by electors, wherein each municipality could send at least one elector.
All chambers debated separately. Ordinarily there were no joint sessions, and while it was possible to arrange a joint debating session where voting was however not permitted, such sessions were only arranged twice in the history of the Diet. Three chambers had to pass the bill before it could be approved by the Emperor. However, consensus was sought in joint committees, and in case of disagreements, a committee was set to reconcile the differences between the versions passed by different chambers. Any bill affecting the privileges of an estate could be passed only with the consent of that estate. All four chambers had to agree in order to modify constitutional laws.
Sessions and meeting places of the Diet
List of sessions of the Finnish diet.
- 1809 (January to July);
- 1863–1864 (September 1863 to April 1864);
- 1867 (January to May);
- 1872 (February to June);
- 1877–1878; (January 1877 to January 1878);
- 1882 (January to June);
- 1885 (January to May);
- 1888 (January to May);
- 1891 (January to May);
- 1894 (January to June);
- 1897 (January to June);
- 1899 (January to May);
- 1900 (January to June);
- 1904–1905 (December 1904 to April 1905);
- 1906 (January to September);
The Diet of Finland, and the four estates of which it was composed, met in a number of different locations during its existence. In the 1860s, all the estates met in the Finnish House of Nobility. Whilst the Nobility of Finland continued to meet there until 1906, the three commoner estates later met in other locations, such as in 1888, when they met in the new building of the Ateneum Art Museum. From 1891 until the parliamentary reform of 1906 the three commoner estates of Clergy, Bourgeoisie and Peasants met in the newly built House of the Estates (Finnish Säätytalo, Swedish Ständerhuset). However, the meeting rooms of the house were too small for the 200-member unicameral parliament. The house has since seen sporadic use by the state and regular use by scientific and scholarly organizations.
Diets and Speakers
- Lantmarskalks of the Finnish House of Nobility
- Parliament of Finland
- Senate of Finland
- Governor-General of Finland
- Finnish nobility
- Finnish House of Nobility
- in the Finnish-language Wikipedia
- History of the Finnish Parliament – Official site
- Kejsarens tal vid lantdagens avslutande den 19 juli 1809 – in Swedish at Wikisource (Originally in French)
- Comparison between Diet of Finland and Parliament of Finland (in Finnish)
russian steps are really a version of intervals; eg: 30s of effort then 30s of recovery, then 60/60, 90/90, 120/120, 90/90, etc.
But when climbing hard climbs I do 5 revs seated and then 5 standing, then 10/10, 15/15, 20/20, 25/25, 20/20, 15/15…… and repeat as long as necessary until you’re there.
It’s harder work climbing standing, particularly if like today your standing is very low cadence, but concentrating on getting through the intervals is better than thinking about how hard it is.
As for climbing seated. It is supposedly easier as you don’t have to support your body weight at the same time, but I don’t have the same leg strength in the seated muscle groups as I do standing (that SS background again) hence if I want to climb ‘fast’ then it’s standing and full gas, sitting and spinning is for saving energy. And sometimes it’s all I have to be able to keep the pedals moving…..
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DISCOVER – ACHIEVE – SUSTAIN
“I believe, with mindful attention to body-mind-spirit, and a practice of self-compassion and gratitude, we are all empowered to discover the body’s innate ability for healing and balance.” ~ Lynn Hatch, RN, MSN, NP, CHWC
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We ask the creator of the “No-Diet” diet to explain how changing your thinking is the key to shedding kilos.
The “no-diet” diet, as featured in Esther Blum’s book, Eat, Drink, And Be Gorgeous (Hardie Grant) has already earned the confidence of many celebrities, including Sarah Jessica Parker, Sharon Stone and Teri Hatcher, and is now becoming the hottest thing in the US. Instead of punishing eating and exercise regimes, the “no-diet” diet encourages women to eat and drink whatever they want. There are no diet plans to follow, no foods to avoid and no kilojoule counting. The “no-diet” diet is all about freeing you up to enjoy eating and drinking while still getting the results you want. Follow these five steps to find out how.
Take back the control
“It’s time to stop the insanity,” says Blum. “We’ve become so used to following strict diets that we’ve lost the ability to make our own eating and drinking decisions, so throw away your diet books and wipe the slate clean.
“Learn to trust your own judgment. We don’t need other people to define our hungers and appetites. We know what our bodies need. We can create our own rules and we do not need others to tell us what to do. We simply need to allow ourselves the time and space when we do eat to acknowledge when we’ve had enough.”
Fill up on fun
“A healthy lifestyle has to be as enjoyable as possible,” says Blum. “If you approach eating and exercise with passion and creative energy, you carry that enthusiasm across all realms of your life. So forget pounding the treadmill when what you’d really like to do is dance.”
And on the “no-diet” diet the same rules apply to food. Blum believes food is one of life’s greatest pleasures and is there to be enjoyed. “Try new things,” she says. “Eat a greater variety of different foods and give yourself permission to eat whatever you want. This may sound dangerous, but in doing so we empower ourselves to have control over what we eat rather then letting the food control us!
“Suddenly the fear of ‘I’ll never be satisfied’ gets replaced with ‘That’s all I need for now and I can always have more’. “Similarly, when we allow ourselves to have anything in moderation, food begins to lose its power over us and we find those foods we always craved are no longer as irresistible.”
Don’t play the shame game
Years of strict diets and books listing all the “good” and “bad” foods have left many of us experiencing feelings of guilt around food. But Blum believes “guilty eating” is like carrying around a sack of bricks.
“It feels far better when you put it down! Lighten up on yourself because, as soon as you do, your body begins to lighten up, too. Eating a healthy diet isn’t about perfection; it’s about progress and fostering an empowered relationship with food and exercise.”
Understand why you eat
“When you want to eat and you’re not hungry, ask yourself, ‘What’s really going on here?’ Keep a food diary for five to seven days. Track your hunger levels before and after eating and write down how you were feeling when you ate. Soon you’ll notice when you are eating to satisfy an emotional need rather than a physiological one.
“Address the real reasons for any emotional eating you may be doing and, if necessary, put other, non-food rewards in place, such as having a bubble bath, going for a walk or calling a friend.”
Veg out and curb your carbs
While Blum doesn’t advocate strict eating regimes, she does recommend making a few slight alterations to what is considered best nutritional practice at the moment. Current healthy eating guidelines still advocate a diet based on carbohydrates; they don’t, however, differentiate between processed and unprocessed carbs.
Blum believes this is a mistake and that to maximise our intake of essential vitamins, minerals and fibre we should focus on choosing unprocessed carbohydrates, such as beans, pulses, corn, brown rice and root vegetables, over processed ones such as pasta, white rice, cereals, noodles and breads.