In cricket, a duck is a batsman’s dismissal for a score of zero.
Origin of the term
The term is a shortening of the term “duck’s egg”, the latter being used long before Test cricket began. When referring to the Prince of Wales’ (the future Edward VII) score of nought on 17 July 1866, a contemporary newspaper wrote that the Prince “retired to the royal pavilion on a ‘duck’s egg’ “. The name is believed to come from the shape of the number “0” being similar to that of a duck’s egg, as in the case of the American slang term “goose-egg” popular in baseball and the tennis term “love,” derived from French l’oeuf (“the egg”). The Concise Oxford Dictionary still cites “duck’s egg” as an alternative version of the term.
The first duck in a Test match was made in the very first Test, between Australia and England at Melbourne in March 1877, when Ned Gregory was caught by Andrew Greenwood off the bowling of James Lillywhite. As of 2017, the record for the most ducks in Test cricket is held by West Indies player Courtney Walsh, who was out for nought on 43 occasions, while the overall first-class record is 156, set by Worcestershire and England player Reg Perks.
One particularly high-profile example of a duck came in 1948, when Don Bradman was playing his final Test match for Australia, against England at The Oval. In Australia’s first innings, Bradman was bowled for a duck by Eric Hollies, causing his Test average to fall from 101.39 to 99.94; had he scored just four runs, his average would have been 100. As things turned out, Australia won the match by an innings, and so Bradman did not get to bat a second time (had he batted, he would have needed at least 104 runs if dismissed or at least four runs if not out to get his average back to 100).
In the first Test of Australia’s tour of India in 1986, with the cumulative scores tied, Indian tailender Maninder Singh was trapped LBW by Greg Matthews for a four ball duck, ensuring just the second tied Test in Test Cricket history.
Indian all-rounder Ajit Agarkar earned the unfortunate nickname “Bombay Duck” after being dismissed for ducks five consecutive times in test matches against Australia.
In a 1913 match against Glastonbury, Huish and Langport’s batsmen all scored ducks for a total of zero runs. A similar occurrence in indoor cricket happened in 2016, when Bapchild Cricket Club were dismissed for zero against Christ Church University.
On January 30, 2017 tailender Josh Hazlewood (Aus) became the first player to be dismissed for a diamond duck in a partnership of more than fifty runs. He was run out at the non-striker’s end without facing a delivery.
There are several variations used to describe specific types of duck. The usage or prevalence of many of these terms vary regionally, with one term having different meanings in different parts of the world. Even within commentary from ESPN Cricinfo or individual cricket board websites, there is no uniform application of some of these terms.
- Players who are dismissed by the first ball they face are said to have been dismissed for a golden duck. This term is applied uniformly throughout the cricket world.
- A batsman who is dismissed without facing a ball (most usually run out from the non-striker’s end, but alternatively stumped or run out off a wide delivery) is said to be out for a diamond duck, but in some regions that term has an alternative definition.
- An opening batsman who is dismissed on the first ball of a team’s innings is said to be out for a diamond duck, platinum duck or royal duck, depending upon the regional usage.
To be dismissed for nought in both innings of the same two-innings match is to be dismissed for a pair, because the two noughts together are thought to resemble a pair of spectacles; the longer form is occasionally used. To be dismissed first ball in both innings (i.e., two golden ducks) is to suffer the indignity of making a king pair.
The Primary Club
A “golden duck” is also known as a “primary”. In 1955 several young members of Beckenham Cricket Club in Kent who had been dismissed first ball that season, formed a club dedicated to supporting a charity to help blind cricketers. The Primary Club has grown into an international charity making annual donations in excess of £100,000 to a variety of schools and clubs for the blind and partially sighted. Their patron is former England and Kent cricketer Derek Underwood MBE. Membership is open to any player who has been dismissed first ball in any game of cricket. Funds are raised through the selling of ties which should be worn on the Saturday of a Test match.
- Hat trick, the dismissal of three batsmen from three consecutive balls
- Names for the number 0 in English
- Pairs in test and first-class cricket
- Golden sombrero, an equally inglorious batting feat in baseball
- ^ a b LONDON from THE DAILY TIMES CORRESPONDENT, 25 July 1866 can be viewed at Paper’s past
- ^ “duck”. AskOxford.com. Retrieved 2009-03-29.
- ^ “Australia v England in 1876/77”. CricketArchive. Retrieved 2007-05-22.
- ^ “Tests – Most Ducks in Career”. Cricinfo. Retrieved 2017-07-07.
- ^ “Most Ducks in First-Class Cricket”. CricketArchive. Retrieved 2007-05-22.
- ^ “Don Bradman”. CricketArchive. Retrieved 2007-05-22.
- ^ “No more Bombay Duck”. The Sun. 4 August 2007.
- ^ Frindall, Bill (2009). Ask Bearders. BBC Books. pp. 80–81. ISBN 978-1-84607-880-4.
- ^ Morris, Steven (2011-09-07). “Ducks all round: the cricket team that was all out for nought”. The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2016-02-13.
- ^ “Cricket team bowled out for zero in Kent indoor game”. BBC Sport. 2016-02-11. Retrieved 2016-02-13.
- ^ a b “Cricket explained”. Cricinfo. Retrieved 2007-05-22.
- ^ a b Victorian Cricket Association Umpires and Scorers Association Association Newsletter, Vol. 15 No. 5, 2008–2009 season, p11
- ^ Samuel, Martin (4 December 2010). “A diamond duck? Simon Katich’s howler was as rare as a sighting of Quackula..” Daily Mail. London.
- ^ “Diamond duck places Katich in select Ashes club”. The Sydney Morning Herald. 4 December 2010.
- ^ All Today’s Yesterdays – South Africa’s first home Test for 22 years
- ^ Sailesh S. Radha, Five Days in White Flannels: A Trivia Book on Test Cricket, p46, (AuthorHouse) ISBN 1-4389-2469-0
- ^ “Middlesex facing innings defeat at Lord’s”. Middlesex County Cricket Club. 22 June 2006. Archived from the original on 5 February 2012. Retrieved 2013-09-08.
- ^ Blofeld, Henry (18 August 2003). “CRICKET: Smith has the class and character to revive England”. The Independent. FindArticles. Archived from the original on 8 September 2013. Retrieved 2013-09-08.
Conversely, Graham Gooch made a pair of spectacles in his first Test, against Australia.
When we first got our ducks, we put them under our second-story deck at night for safety. This was secure and comfortable for them, but not entirely convenient for us, and not a very good long-term solution.
During the ducks’ second summer I built this house and run at the back of our yard. It is smaller than their old space; the house is about four feet square, but the attached run triples that space. Except in very cold weather, they spent most of their nights under the deck by the fence, looking out, and in cold weather they huddled together between straw bale windbreaks, so this new design suits them well. I’m glad I waited to build a proper house, actually; when we first got the ducks I wouldn’t have understood their needs. For example, I didn’t bother to build nestboxes, since we were never able to get our ducks to use the ones in their old pen.
I built this house to be extremely secure, long-lasting, and attractive enough for the backyard. As a result it was not cheap (over $250 for materials) or trivial to build, but it should last for several generations of ducks, and we don’t have to worry about predators. I should also say that I borrowed the basic design from the Kintaline Poultry and Waterfowl Centre in Scotland; if you live in the United Kingdom, you may want to buy one of theirs instead of building your own. (Their Westford model is the house I was looking at.)
Click any of the photos for a larger version.
The total cost of lumber, hardware, hardware cloth, roofing, paint, and other materials was between $250 and $300. It wasn’t cheap, but it will last a long time, and it is also extremely secure.
- The wood frame is regular untreated lumber, which is half the price of pressure-treated lumber. This is covered with exterior-grade siding plywood designed for sheds; it has indented vertical stripes to help rain run off. The wood frame of the pen is also untreated; with regular repainting it will hold up fine, and was half the cost of pressure-treated lumber.
- The roof is a composite material that seems to hold up fine but was an awful pain to work with. It is corrugated like tin roofing to aid runoff. If I had it to do over, I’d use tin roofing, but since it’s done, I don’t have any regrets. The roofing is nailed into exterior grade plywood that I nailed to the rafters.
- The run, windows, and vents under the front and back of the roof are secured with 1/2-inch hardware cloth, stapled to the wood frame with 3/8-inch staples. I have heard of racoons reaching through chickenwire, and the narrower gauge also keeps snakes out. It’s more expensive than chickenwire, but I think the security is worth it. The run is also floored with chickenwire (also stapled to the frame) to prevent anything digging in.
- The paint is exterior grade oil over an exterior oil primer. I found an oil-based paint designed for barns whose manufacturer alleges it to be non-toxic.
Building the house and run — framing, roofing, hanging the door, building the run, stapling hardware cloth, building the lids, and painting — took almost four months, but I wasn’t in a hurry, stopped a few times to reconsider my plans, had to wait out frequent rain, and had a baby in the middle of the process. If I had to build a second one, I could probably finish it in a week of work.
As with the grazing pen, I went to some extra trouble to make the house and run look good in the backyard. The joints in the wood frame of the run are half-lapped (so that the surface of each side is flat). For portability, the run is joined to the house with screws that can be removed, and the house and run transported separately.
- The house is 48″ wide by 50″ deep on the outside; 47″ high in back, 53″ in front. The run is the depth of the house, 8′ long, and 30″ high.
- The house rests on cinder blocks which are set into the ground to level it. The run was built after the house was leveled, directly on the ground.
- The door to the house is hung like the door of a house and latches tightly. The latch is not difficult to open but it does require a level of manual dexterity beyond that of any nonhuman animal that might try to open it.
- The run is covered with two lids, framed by 2x4s and secured with hardware cloth. The lids are hinged at the back; in the front they latch with barrel bolts. This provides easy access for humans but, again, no predator can get in. There is no ground-level entrance to the run.
As with the grazing pen, I don’t have formal plans to offer. My pencil sketches and scrawled notes, most of which I revised in my head as I actually built the thing, would not be of much use here.
Notes on use
I use one lid to the run almost exclusively — the one furthest from the house — and it has come apart a few times. Repeated opening and closing places too much stress on the lap joints. At some point, I need to rebuild that lid with stronger joints.
Otherwise, the house has held up wonderfully for nearly five years.
This sociable duck is found in a variety of wetland habitats, and its nesting habits are much like those of the mallard, which is encroaching on its range in New Zealand. It feeds by upending, like other Anas ducks.
It has a dark body, and a paler head with a dark crown and facial stripes. In flight, it shows a green speculum and pale underwing. All plumages are similar. The size range is 54–61 cm; males tend to be larger than females, and some island forms are smaller and darker than the main populations. It is not resident on the Marianas islands, but sometimes occurs there during migration. The now extinct Mariana mallard was probably originally derived from hybrids between this species and the mallard, which came to the islands during migration and settled down there.
There are three subspecies of Anas superciliosa:
- rogersi − Mathews, 1912 Australasian duck, breeds in Indonesia, southern New Guinea and Australia
- pelewensis − Hartlaub & Finsch, 1872 – Island black duck, breeds on the southwest Pacific islands and northern New Guinea
- superciliosa Gmelin, 1789 − New Zealand grey duck, breeds in New Zealand
The New Zealand subspecies has declined sharply in numbers, at least in its pure form, due to competition from and hybridisation with the introduced mallard. Rhymer et al. (1994) say their data “points to the eventual loss of identity of the grey duck as a separate species in New Zealand, and the subsequent dominance of a hybrid swarm akin to the Mariana Mallard.”
It was assumed that far more mallard drakes mate with grey duck females than vice versa based on the fact that most hybrids show a mallard-type plumage, but this is not correct; it appears that the mallard phenotype is dominant, and that the degree to which species contributed to a hybrid’s ancestry cannot be determined from the plumage. The main reasons for displacement of the pārera seem to be physical dominance of the larger mallards, combined with a marked population decline of the pārera due to overhunting in the mid-20th century.
Various views and plumagesEdit
Durack Lakes, Palmerston, Northern Territory
Centenary Lakes, Cairns, Queensland
- ^ BirdLife International (2012). “Anas superciliosa“. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
- ^ Rhymer, Judith M. & Simberloff, Daniel (1996). “Extinction by hybridization and introgression”. 83–109. : 83. doi:10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.27.1.83.
- ^ Madge, Steve; Burn, Hilary (1988). Waterfowl: an Identification Guide to the Ducks, Geese, and Swans of the World. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-395-46727-6.
- ^ Gillespie, Grant D (1985). “Hybridization, introgression, and morphometric differentiation between Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and Grey Duck (Anas superciliosa) in Otago, New Zealand” (PDF). The Auk. (3): 459–469.
- ^ Rhymer, Judith M.; Williams, Murray J. & Braun, Michael J (1994). “Mitochondrial analysis of gene flow between New Zealand Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and Grey Ducks (A. superciliosa)” (PDF). The Auk. (4): 970–978. doi:10.2307/4088829.
- ^ Williams, Murray & Basse, Britta (2006). “Indigenous gray ducks, Anas superciliosa, and introduced mallards, A. platyrhynchos, in New Zealand: processes and outcome of a deliberate encounter”. Acta Zoologica Sinica. (Supplement): 579–582.
- Heather, Barrie D. & Robertson, Hugh A. (1996). The Field Guide to the Birds of New Zealand. Auckland: Viking. ISBN 0-670-86911-2.
Russian cuisine is widely known all over the world. The assortment of Russian cuisine is so various, and its popularity in Europe is so great
Cooking time —
Russian cuisine is widely known all over the world. The assortment of Russian cuisine is so various, and its popularity in Europe is so great, that even early in the last century it was spoken about with the same respect, as the refined French cuisine. Russian national cuisine is original, unique and inimitable. No other country has such a variety of vegetable, meat, fish and other cold starters, soups, main dishes, sweet dishes, culinary foods. It has been quite a while since we last cooked something from poultry, although Russian cuisine offers hundreds of incredibly tasty and healthy dishes. A distinctive feature of the old Russian ferial table was making dishes from the whole poultry or animal or a big piece of meat. Ground, chopped meat was basically used to fill pies or stuff goose, chicken, lamb and pork legs, sausages.
1 medium-sized chicken
pepper to taste
1/2 cup sour cream
200g pickled mushrooms
1/2 cup cream
salt, ground pepper to taste
Rub the prepared chicken with salt and sour cream. Prepare the stuffing: grind beef, grate carrots fine, add breadcrumbs, cream, salt, pepper, finely chopped mushrooms – stir everything thoroughly. Stuff the chicken, sew it up, and put on the buttered baking tray with its back down. To steady the chicken, put potato halves around. Roast the chicken in the usual way pouring it with the appearing juice. Remove the threads from the prepared chicken, take out the filling, and put the chicken on the dish. Put the potatoes and the filling around and pour it with the juice it was fried in.
Duck With Noodles And Mushrooms
1 medium-sized duck
200g home noodles
5-6 dried mushrooms
1 table spoon flour
1 cup sour cream
1 parsley root
pepper ground to taste
Boil noodles in salted water and drain them on the colander. Boil mushrooms in 2 cups of water (keep the broth). Chop the boiled mushrooms finely, reserve 2 tablespoons for the sauce, and combine the rest with the noodles, eggs, butter, salt, and pepper. Stuff the prepared duck with noodles and mushrooms, and sew it up. Put the duck in a saucepan, add the mushroom broth, crushed parsley and carrot roots, and stew until the duck is ready. Prepare the sauce: brown flour in a frying pan, stir in the mushroom broth remaining from the duck stewing, add 2-3 tablespoons of the chopped mushrooms, sour cream, and bring to boil. Remove the threads from the prepared duck, take out the filling, and put the duck on the dish. Put the filling around and pour it with the sauce.
4 chicken fillets
40g melted butter
1/2 cup breadcrumbs
salt to taste
1 bunch parsley
Slice off fillet from the prepared chicken carcass, remove membranes, tenderize with a mallet until 0.5cm thick, put the filling in the middle, connect the edges, and shape the fillet as a cutlet. Then coat the cutlets in breadcrumbs and fry on both sides until a crisp crust appears. Finish the fried cutlets in the oven. For filling: grind shelled walnuts, add pounded parsley, garlic, salt and a raw egg, and stir thoroughly.
4 chicken fillet
2 slices white bread
for cribs (10 ea)
1 cup wheaten flour
2 table spoons milk
1 table spoon sour cream
1 egg sugar
salt to taste
Clean poultry fillet (boned), tenderize slightly with a mallet, dip in liaison, coat in julienned white bread, and fry 12-15 minutes right before serving. Serve the fillet with a slice of butter on it. Garnish with potato chips, green tinned peas, tinned fruit. The garnish can also be served in pastry cribs. To make them, dissolve sugar and salt in milk, add eggs, flour (half), softened margarine and sour cream. Mix everything until homogeneous and add the other flour gradually. Roll out the prepared pastry 2-3mm thick and cut out circles the size of your forms. Put the circles in the forms, press the pastry to the inner surface of the forms, puncture in several places with a fork, fill them with peas or cereals to preserve the shape, and bake in the oven. When they get brownish, take the cribs out of the forms, remove the peas or cereals and chill down.
White Partridge Stewed In Sour Cream
2 medium-sized partridges
2 cups sour cream
1 table spoon flour
salt, pepper to taste
Rinse and pluck the prepared partridges thoroughly, rub with salt, and halve along the backbone. Melt butter in the frying pan and fry the partridges slightly. Put the meat in a bowl, and fry finely sliced onions and carrots in the same butter until soft. Put the partridge pieces on the vegetables, pour sour cream over them, add salt and pepper (you can add 1 tbsp of heated flour for density), and stew covered at low heat until the meat is ready, about 1 hour. Put the cooked meat on a dish, and pour it with the sour cream sauce with vegetables.
Pheasant Fillet With Jam
300-400g pheasant fillet
5-6 slices white bread
1 cup fruit jam (bilberry, cranberry)
salt, pepper to taste
Remove sinews from the pheasant fillet. Cut into small pieces. Tenderize the pieces slightly with a mallet, add salt and pepper, roll them in eggs, and coat in diced white bread. Fry the game slices in butter until ready. Fry potato chips. Put the game slices on a dish, put fried potatoes around, and decorate with fresh herbs. Serve jam in a separate bowl.
1 cup millet
5-6 tbsp butter
spices, salt to taste
Rub the prepared goose with salt and spices inside and outside. Boil millet until half-ready, drain on a sieve, add butter and fill the goose with the mixture. Sew up the neck and the rump of the goose with a food thread, put it in a stew pan, cover and stew in the oven until ready, 3-4 hours. In Siberia, such goose is prepared in the evening before the wedding day and left overnight in the heated Russian stove.
Moscow-Style Roast Chickens
To cook the dish you need:
400-500g fresh cep mushrooms
1-2 medium-sized onions
2 tbsp flour
400g sour cream
300g cream dill
200g short pastry for covering
salt to taste
Gut the chickens, chop them into portion pieces (normally 4 parts), and salt. Fry sliced onion and finely chopped mushrooms in oil, then add chicken slices. Put the chickens into portion pots. Brown flour in the same frying pan, add sour cream and cream, and boil to make a sauce (until thick). Chop a few bunches of dill finely and stir in the sauce. Pour the resulting sauce over the chickens, and cover the pots with short pastry. Make several cuts in the pastry to let out steam. Put in the oven for 40-50 minutes.
Goose Roasted With Apples
To cook the dish you need:
4 tbsp cored raisins
15-20 medium-sized apples (preferably antonovka)
1 tbsp sugar fresh parsley
10 black olives
salt to taste
Rub the goose outside and inside with salt. Prepare a mix for the filling: combine cored and peeled apple quarters with pre-soaked raisins and sugar. Stuff the goose with the mixture and sew it up. Put the goose on the baking tray with its back down, add a half-cup of water and put it in the oven. When the goose gets brown, turn it over. Turn down the heat and pour the appearing fat over the goose every 5-10 minutes. The goose is cooked about 3 hours. Half an hour before the goose is ready, put the remaining whole apples around it, pour the fat over them, and bake. Remove the threads from the cooked goose and take out the filling. Put the filling on a dish, top it with fresh herbs, put the goose above and baked apples around. Put olives in the middles of the apples.
Chicken Stewed With Prunes On Vol-Au-Vent
100g melted butter
1 tbsp flour
1.5 cups cored prunes
1 parsley root
1 celery root
Put the portion pieces in a saucepan with melted butter, add finely chopped roots and onions, and stew under cover until ready adding some water. Half an hour before the dish is ready, add 3 cups of broth or water and boil the chicken thoroughly. Prepare the sauce: brown flour in butter, add broth, a little vinegar, sugar, and bring to boil. Add pre-soaked prunes to the chicken, add the sauce and put in the heated oven for 15-20 minutes. Put the chicken slices and prunes on a vol-au-vent (a flatbread from puff or short pastry) and pour the sauce over them.